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(105 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Banū Nīsān, the name of a family of ruʾasāʾ (pl. of raʾīs [ q.v.]), of a fabulous richness, who held power at Āmid [see diyār bakr ] in the 6th/12th century under the nominal suzerainty of the Inālid [ q.v.] Turcomans. They even placed their name on coins. Their rule came to an end with the conquest of the town by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn [ q.v.], who accused them of having cultivated the friendship of, and even to have provided assistance for, the Assassins [see Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 103, 297 Abū S̲h̲āma, ii, 39 Cl. Cahen, Mouvements populaires, in Arabica, v/3 (1958),…


(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)


(146 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), pl. d̲j̲azāʾir , a term which signifies essentially an island and secondarily a peninsula (for example D̲j̲azīrat al-Andalus , Spain; Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab [see al-ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat-]). By extension, This same word is applied also to territories situated between great rivers (see following article) or separated from the rest of a continent by an expanse of desert; it also designates a maritime country (see Asín Palacios, Abenházam de Cordoba , Madrid 1927-32, i, 291 n. 347) and, with or without a following al-nak̲h̲l , an oasis (see Dozy, Suppl ., s.v.). Finally, with the Ismāʿīlīs d…

al-Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir (or al-Muṭahhar) al-Maḳdisī

(504 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Naṣr, the otherwise unknown author of an “historical” encyclopaedia called Kitāb al-Badʾ wa ’l-taʾrīk̲h̲ composed at Bust [ q.v.] around 355/966 at the prompting of an anonymous Sāmānid minister. Cl. Huart had the merit of bringing out of oblivion an eloquent piece of work which witnesses to the interest shown in the history of humanity, probably less in regard to actual events than in regard to culture, by mediaeval Muslims. Huart published, on the basis of an Istanbul ms., the Arabic text of this and a Fren…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. tug̲h̲rul s̲h̲āh , the Sald̲j̲ūḳid, was raised to the throne of Kirmān by the Atabeg Muʾayyad al-Dīn Rayḥān in succession to his father on the latter’s death in 565/1170 but soon afterwards had to make way for his elder brother Arslān S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The two brothers there upon fought with one another with varying success till the death of Bahrām S̲h̲āh in 570/1174-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Afḍal al-Dīn Kirmānī, Badāʾiʿ al-Azmān fī waḳāʾiʿ Kirmān, ed. Muḥammad Mahdī Balzānī, Tehran 1947, 50 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, i, 35 ff. ZDMG, xxxix, 378 ff.


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad b. Sahl al-Sāmarrī , traditionist and man of letters, originally from Surra man raʾā (Sāmarrā; Ziriklī, Aʿlām , vi, 297, makes him a native of Samaria/Sāmira), who was, in particular, the pupil of ʿUmar b. S̲h̲abba [ q.v.]. In 325/937 he went to Damascus and taught there ḥadīt̲h̲ , dying at ʿAsḳalān (at Jaffa, according to Ziriklī) in 327/939 aged ca. 90 years. He left behind several works on ethics and on belles-lettres, one of which has been printed at Cairo in 1350/1931-2, the Kitāb Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāḳ wa-maʿālihā . Othe…


(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya, or Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), a contemptuous term derived from ḥas̲h̲w (“farce” and hence “prolix and useless discourse”) and with the general meaning of “scholars” of little worth, particularly traditionists; this term is sometimes associated with g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ and g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar , and even with raʿāʿ , “the scum of the populace” (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif , 96; tr. Lecomte, 90), and used by some Sunnis of extremist traditionists or those whose researches are of very little value. Fairly close to Nābita [ q.v.] and to Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], it is used, in a narrower se…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescribe any particular celebration for the first month of the year, except that a voluntary fast-day is recommended on the tenth [see ʿās̲h̲ūrāʾ ]. However, the first ten days of the month are considered as particularly blessed (Lane, Manners and customs, chs. ix, xxiv). The S̲h̲īʿa know several celebrations during this month [see muḥarram ; taʿziya ]. In most Islamic countries, New Year’…


(62 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, said to mean “uplands”, a district of mediaeval northern K̲h̲urāsān, comprising the fertile plain, famed for its grain production, through whose western part the Atrek river [ q.v.] flows. The plain lies between the modern Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id and Kūh-i Bmālūd/Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān mountain chains. Its urban centre was K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān, the later Kūčān [ q.v.]. See kūčān for further details. (Ed.)


(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(French form, saїda ), a town of Algeria, the chef-lieu of the department ( wilāya ) of the same name, situated 175 km/108 miles from Oran (Wahrān [ q.v.]) and 95 km/59 miles from Mascara (al-Muʿaskar [ q.v.]), at an altitude of 900 m/2,950 feet. It is on the wādī Saʿīda, in touch with the Causse of Oran (hills of Saïda) and the High Plains, limestone plateaux which form part of the Atlas of the Tells, to ¶ the east of the hills of Ouarsenis (Wans̲h̲arīs). The town had about 30,000 inhabitants and the department about 200,000 in 1987. The region is suitable for raising c…


(3,946 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), sodomy. There does exist in Arabic a verb lāṭa meaning “to attach oneself, to join oneself to”, but liwāṭ appears to be rather a maṣdar of lāṭa or lāwaṭa , denominative of Lūṭ [ q.v.], i.e. Lot; in modern Arabic there are also the terms liwāṭa , mulāwaṭa , talawwuṭ , etc., as well as a large number of euphemisms and of dialectical and slang terms. The homosexual is called lūṭī or lāʾiṭ (pl. lāṭa), or mulāwiṭ , when he is the active partner, although the distinction is often difficult to establish; the passive is maʾbūn , and his perversion, ubna ; among the synonyms, the most common is muk̲h̲annat…

al-Muddat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and al-Muzzammil

(204 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the titles respectively of the 74th and 73rd sūras of the Ḳurʾān, derived from the first verse of each one of them which may be translated “O you covered in a cloak!” The first term is the active participle of a form V, tadat̲h̲t̲h̲ara , denominative verb from dit̲h̲ār “over garment”, and the second, also an active participle, from form V, tazammala “to wrap oneself [in a garment]”, the infix t of mutadat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and mutazammil being simply assimilated to the first radical. The two sūras are Meccan, and the opening verses of the first sūra may …


(694 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nickname given to a person who rebelled in Transoxania during the caliphate of al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85 [ q.v.]) and who hid his face beneath a ḳināʿ , i.e., a veil (of silk), or, as a plausible tradition holds, a mask of gold which he had made for himself. His real name is not known with certainty, and there is a choice between ʿAṭāʾ, Ḥakīm, His̲h̲ām b. Ḥakīm and Hās̲h̲im; it is moreover related that he assumed this latter name for himself and that his partisans’ war-cry was “O Hās̲h̲im, help u…

Kitāb Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar

(599 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the title of an anonymous work written to the greater glory of the Berbers of Morocco and al-Andalus, existing in a ms. of the Bibliothèque Générale of Rabat (cote 1020 D). E. Lévi-Provençal published from this, as Fragments historiques sur les Berbères au moyen âgeNubad̲h̲ taʾrīk̲h̲iyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-Barbar fi ’l-ḳurūn al-wusṭā (Collection de textes arabes publiée par l’Institut des Hautes Études Marocaines, i, Rabat 1934), the following extracts: a chapter from Ibn Ḥayyān’s Muḳtabis on the relations of al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] with the Berbers of the Mag̲h̲rib (pp. …


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), “my lord”, an honorific title borne by the Moroccan sultans of the S̲h̲arīfian dynasties (Saʿdids and ʿAlawids) who were descended from al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī [see ḥasanī ], with the exception of those who were called Muḥammad and whose title was therefore Sayyidī/Sīdī (but the form Maḥammad freely altered does not exclude the usage of Mawlāy in ¶ front of the monarch’s name). The articles devoted to the two dynasties considered [see ʿalawīs and saʿdids ] contain or will contain in general sufficient information on the constituent sultans, but som…


(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ital. posta ), borrowed into Ottoman Turkish and Arabic in the 19th century in the forms p/ bōsta , p/ bōsṭa to designate the new conception of European-style postal services in the Near East. In more recent times, it has been replaced at the formal level by barīd [ q.v.], a revival of the mediaeval Arabic term for the state courier and intelligence services, but būsta / busṭa and būstad̲j̲ī “postman” continue in use in the Arab Levant at the informal level, and posta remains the standard term in Modern Turkish. In modern Persian also post , from the French poste , is used. (Ed.)


(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term denoting the dyeing of certain parts of the body (and especially, in regard to men, the beard and hair) by means of henna [see ḥinnāʾ ] or some similar substance. It is still used in this sense today, but is used moreover for the items of make-up and cosmetics employed by modern women; the reader may find under marʾa information about those items of cosmetics used by women attached to the traditional usages. (Ed.)

Aytāk̲h̲ al-Turkī

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(d. 235/849), a K̲h̲azar military slave or g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.] who had been bought in 199/815 by the future caliph al-Muʿtaṣim, and who played an important role in the reigns of his master, of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ and of al-Mutawakkil. At the opening of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s caliphate, he was, with As̲h̲nās, the “mainstay of die caliphate”. After being commander of die guard in Sāmarrā, in 233/847 he was made governor of Egypt, but delegated his powers there to Hart̲h̲ama b. Naṣr (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībardī, Nud̲j̲ūm , ii, 265; al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. Wiet, v, 136). It was he who, in…


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mullā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Tayd̲j̲awzī , a Kurdish poet who composed an ʿAḳīda-nāma and a celebrated dīwān in the Hawrāmī dialect of Gūrānī. He was born ca. 1222/1807 at Tāwagōz in D̲j̲awānrūd and died at Sars̲h̲āta, on the river Sīrwān near Ḥalabd̲j̲a, ca. 1300/1883. (Ed.) Bibliography V. Minorsky, The Gūrān, in BSOAS, xi (1943-5), 94 Pīramērd, Dīwān-i Mawlawī, 2 vols., Sulaymānīya, 1938-40 ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Sad̲j̲d̲j̲ādī, Mēz̲h̲ū-y adab-ī kurdī, Bag̲h̲dād 1952.


(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), lit. “writer, secretary” < Tkis̲h̲. yaz- “write”, hence the Turkish equivalent of kātib , dabīr and muns̲h̲ī . The term was used in Ottoman times for the clerks in the various government departments, such as the ¶ treasury, with a bas̲h̲ yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ at their head. It could also be used for the secretaries of high court and military officials, e.g. of the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ “Chief Eunuch of the Women”, who was also, in the 10th/16th century, in charge of the ewḳāf for the Ḥaramayn, Mecca and Medina, and other great mosques of the empire [see Ḥaramayn , at Vol. III, 175b]. (Ed.) Bibliography Gi…
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