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Ibn Kīrān

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Ṭayyib b. ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd b. ʿAbd al-Salām b. Kīrān (1172-1227/1758-1812), faḳīh and littérateur of Fās. He received a traditional education from the local scholars, and himself taught rhetoric to numerous pupils, including Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ [ q.v.], Ḥamdūn, Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība, al-Kūhin [ q.vv.] and the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1205-38/1792-1823), who continually showed his high opinion of Ibn Kīrān by consulting him and by entrusting to him, with other fuḳahāʾ , the applying of his ordinances. His work is largely preserv…

Ibn Mīt̲h̲am

(480 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl b. S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mīt̲h̲am (often read as al-Hayt̲h̲am) b. Yaḥyā al-Tammār (whence the less common name for him, Ibn al-Tammār ), al-Asadī (al-Ṣābūnī, according to Ibn Ḥazm, Fiṣal , iv, 181), Imāmī theologian of the 2nd/8th century. Mīt̲h̲am was a Companion of the Prophet (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , no. 8472) who had adopted the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and had settled at Kūfa, where his great-grandson was born at an uncertain date; nor is the date of his death known. Having left his natal town for B…

Marwānids

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam, who formed the second, and most long-lasting line of this dynasty, the first line being that of Sufyānids, that of Muʿāwiya I b. Abī Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], his son and his grandson (41-64/661-83). With the death of the child Muʿāwiya II b. Yazīd [ q.v.], the caliphate passed to Muʿāwiya I’s second cousin Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ, of the parallel branch of the Aʿyāṣ [ q.v. in Suppl.]. Marwān and his descendants now formed the Marwānid line of the Umayyads (64-132/684-750), his son and successor ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] being t…

Karūk̲h̲

(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town in the region of Bādg̲h̲īs [q.v.] of modern northwestern Afg̲h̲ānistān and, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (4th/10th century), the biggest town of the region after the capital Harāt. It had a Friday mosque and was famed for its fruits, especially apricots and raisins. Its particular claim to fame in mediaeval times was as an enduring centre of the K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ on the eastern Iranian fringes. In 259/873 the Ṣaffārid amīr Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ had to cope with a serious rebellion of the eastern K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ centred on K…

Djambul Djabaev

(314 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a popular Ḳazak̲h̲ poet, illiterate and thus representing oral poetic tradition. Born in 1846 in Semireče of a nomadic family, he took the name Djambul (Džambul) from a mountain; later, in 1938, this name was to be given in his honour to the town of Awliyā Ata [ q.v.] and to an oblast ′ of Ḳazak̲h̲istān. From an early age he was devoted to music and singing, and by them earned his living while still a youth; taking his inspiration from popular grievances, he often improvised poems which he sang, accompanying himself on the dombra ; the best known are entitled “The P…

Malāḥim

(447 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), pl. of malḥama [ q.v.], which is the subject of the article below mainly devoted to the Malḥamat Dāniyāl and its several versions culminating in an apocalyptic current, at first in connection with the announcing of the approach of the Mahdī [ q.v.], and then oriented towards the predictions concerning the fate of different dynasties. These oracles gave birth to the elaborating of so-called malāḥim (or ḥidt̲h̲ān ) works, which have been already spoken of in the article d̲j̲afr , and the subject is only raised again here in order to note the use of…

ʿAyn al-Warda

(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
is a locality which, according to Yāḳūt, is identical with Raʾs ʿAyn [ q.v.]. It owes its fame to the great battle of 24 Ḏj̲umādā I 65/ 6 Jan. 685, in which the S̲h̲īʿites of Kūfa were slaughtered by the Syrians. See Weil, Chalifen , i, 360 ff.; Müller, Der Islam im Morgen- und Abendland , i, 374; al-Ṭabarī, index and especially i, 257 and ii, 554 f. (Ed.)

al-Muʾallafa Ḳulūbuhum

(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “those whose hearts are won over”, the term applied to those former opponents of the Prophet Muḥammad who are said to have been reconciled to the cause of Islam by presents of 100 or 50 camels from Muḥammad’s share (the fifth or k̲h̲ums [ q.v. in Suppl.]) of the spoils of the battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.], after Muḥammad’s forces had defeated the Hawāzin [ q.v.] confederation, and divided out at al-D̲j̲iʿrāna. The list (given in Ibn His̲h̲ām, 880-1, tr. Guillaume, 594-5; al-Wāḳidī, ed. J.M.B. Jones, 939 ff., tr. Wellhausen, 373 ff.; cf. al-Ṭabarī, i, 1679…

Ḥafṣ b. Sulaymān

(308 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Mug̲h̲īra , Abū ʿUmar b. Abī Dāwūd al-Asadī al-Kūfī al-Fāk̲h̲irī al-Bazzāz , transmitter of the “reading” of ʿĀṣim [ q.v.]. Born about 90/709, he became a merchant in cloth, which gained for him the surname of Bazzāz. His fame rests solely on the knowledge he had acquired of the “reading” of the master of Kūfa, whose son-in-law he was. After the death of the latter and the foundation of Bag̲h̲dād he settled in the capital, where he had numerous pupils, then went to spread the “reading” of his father-in-law in…

D̲j̲ebed̲j̲i

(355 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(T. “armourer”), the name given to a member of the corps of “Armourers of the Sublime Porte” ( Ḏj̲ebed̲j̲īyān-i dergāh-i ʿālī ), a Ḳapi̊ Ḳulu [ q.v.] Corps closely associated with the Janissaries [ q.v.]. Their function was to manufacture and repair all arms, ammunition and other equipment belonging to the Janissaries and, on campaign, to transport this equipment to the front, distribute it to the Janissaries and to collect it at the end of the campaign, keeping a record of losses and repairing damaged items. The Corps was presumably founded shortly after the Janissaries and, unt…

Ḥayātī-Zāde

(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ottoman family of physicians and ʿulamāʾ the prominent members of which are: (1) Muṣṭafā Feyḍī, said to have been a convert from Judaism (born Mos̲h̲e ben Raphael Abravanel) and to have acted as interpreter during the interrogation of the ‘Messiah’ S̲h̲abbětay Ṣebī ([ q.v.], see also dönme ), became reʾīs al-aṭibbāʾ [see ḥekīm-bas̲h̲i̊ ] in 1080/1669-70 and died in 1103/1691-2. He is the author of a ‘k̲h̲amsa’ entitled al-Rasāʾil al-mus̲h̲fiyya fi ’l-amrāḍ al-mus̲h̲kila , on the nature, symptoms and treatment of various diseases, based on the L…

al-Anbārī, Abū Muḥammad

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḳāsim b. muḥ. b. bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār , traditionist and philologian, d. 304/916 or 305/917. He wrote a commentary on the Mufaḍḍaliyyāt which was revised by his son, Muḥammad: The Mufaḍḍalīyāt ... according to the recension and with the commentary of Abū M. al-Q. b. M. al-Anbārī , ed. Ch. J. Lyall, Oxford 1918-21. (Ed.) Bibliography Fihrist, 75 Zubaydī, Ṭabaḳāt, 144 al-Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād, xii, 440-1 Yāḳūt, Irs̲h̲ād, vi, 196-8 Ibn al-Ḳifṭī, Inbāh al-Ruwāt, iii, 28 A. Haffner, in WZKM, xiii, 344 ff. F. Kern, in MSOS, xi/2, 262 ff. Brockelmann, S I, 37.

al-Dānī

(260 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUmar al-Umawī , Mālikī lawyer and above all, “reader” of the Ḳurʾān, born at Cordova in 371/ 981/2. After having made his pilgrimage to Mecca and spent some time in Cairo between 397/1006 and 399/1008, he returned to his birthplace but was soon forced to flee, first to Almeria and finally to Denia (Dāniya, whence his nisba ), where he settled down and died in 444/1053. Among more than 120 works which he wrote and enumerated himself in an urd̲j̲ūza , only about ten are known (see Brockelmann, I, 407, S I, 719); two of them deal …

al-Ṣag̲h̲ānī

(89 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. Ḥasan, adīb , floruit during the 7th/13th century. ¶ He is noted only for his poetic version of the animal fable collection, originally translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.], Kalīla wa-Dimna [ q.v.]. This version he called Durrat al-ḥikam fī amt̲h̲āl al-Hunūd wa ’l-ʿAd̲j̲am , and he completed it on 20 D̲j̲umādā 640/15 November 1242 (according to the Vienna ms.) or possibly some 25 years later (according to the other extant ms. of Munich); see Brockelmann, S I, 234-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

sayyidī/sīdī Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,597 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, fifth ruler (1171-1204/1759-90) of the Moroccan dynasty of the ʿAlawids [see ʿalawīs ] and one of the most remarkable. Born in 1134/1722, he received a traditional education at the court and, in 1159/1746, his father, Mawlāy ʿAbd Allāh b. Ismāʿīl [ q.v.] appointed him viceroy ( k̲h̲alīfa ) at Marrakesh, where he was to make a lasting impression with his construction activities and which he was virtually to make his capital, without however neglecting the other cities of Morocco. Harassed by hostile tribes before being …

Ḥafṣ al-Fard

(404 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAmr or Abū Yaḥyā , theologian, concerning whose life practically nothing is known. According to Ibn al-Nadīm ( Fihrist , 180; Cairo ed., 255), he was a native of Egypt, and, if we accept the traditional chronology of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī’s biography (but see J. Schacht, in Studia Orientalia Joanni Pedersen ... dicata , 322), it is probably there that he fell out with al-S̲h̲āfiʿī who is said to have “excommunicated” him (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Lisān al-mīzān , ii, 330-1); this incident probably occurred between 188/804 and 195/810-1, so that it is unlikely that Ḥafṣ was the pupil of the ḳāḍī

Ibn Sūda

(800 words)

Author(s): Ed..
( Sawda ), name of a number of Mālikī scholars and ḳāḍī s of Fez belonging to an Andalusian family which had emigrated to Tāwda (present name Fās al-Bālī), about 80 km. north-north-west of Fez, and was therefore known by the name of Tāwdī. 1. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ibn Abī Muḥammad Ḳāsim Ibn Sūda al-Murrī al-G̲h̲arnāṭī , died at Fez on 25 S̲h̲awwāl 1004/22 June 1596, was ḳāḍī of Taza, of Marrākus̲h̲ and of Fez (see al-Ifrānī, Ṣafwat man intas̲h̲ar , 100; al-Ḳādirī, Nas̲h̲r al-mat̲h̲ānī , i, 34; al-Kattānī, Salwat al-anfās , ii, 61; Lévi-Provençal, Chorfa , index). ¶ 2. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Ibn Sūda …

Edebiyyāt-i Ḏj̲edīde

(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “new literature”, the name given to a Turkish literary movement associated with the review T̲h̲erwet -i Funūn [ q.v.] during the years 1895-1901—that is, during the editorship of Tewfīḳ Fikret [ q.v.]. See further turks, literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)

Ḥayfā

(2,128 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, modern Haifa, a port at the foot of Mount Carmel. The name does not occur in the Bible, but appears frequently in the Talmud and in later Jewish sources, and is mentioned by Eusebius as ʿΕφα. In the early Muslim centuries Haifa was overshadowed by ʿAkkā [ q.v.], and is first described by Nāṣir-i K̲h̲usraw, who was there in 438/1046. He speaks of the palm-groves and numerous trees of this village ( dih ), and mentions the nearby sands of the kind used by Persian goldsmiths and called by them Makkī sand. He also found shipwrights who, he said, made the large, sea-going ships called Ḏj̲ūdī ( Safar-nāma…

Niṣf al-Nahār

(118 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “half of the day”, “midday”, is used in astronomy in the expression which denotes the “meridian circle” ( dāʾirat niṣf al-nahār ) passing through the two poles of the horizon ( ḳuṭbā ’l-ufuḳ ) of a place, which it cuts at the two cardinal points ( d̲j̲iha , watid ) North and South and through the two poles of the celestial equator ( muʿaddal al-nahār , etc.). As the demarcation between the East and West of a place, the meridian serves as the determination of the longitude ( ṭūl [see Ḳubbat al-arḍ ]) and for fixing the hour of midday prayer [see mīḳāt ] by the passage of the Sun ( zawāl ). (Ed.)
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