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(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Persian officer who, at the battle of D̲h̲ū Ḳar [ q.v.], was in command of the Persian troops who were driven back by the Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] and who was killed in the battle. Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲, ii, 228 = ed. Pellat, i, 648) calls him, in error, al-Hurmuzān, but he should not be confused with the Persian general of this name [ q.v.] who was assassinated by ʿUbayd Allāh b. ʿUmar. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭabarī, i, 1030, 1032, 1034 f. (tr. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, Leiden 1879, 335, 338, 340, 342) Ibn al-Wardī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, Cairo 1285, i, 117 see also the Bibl. of the article d̲h̲ū ḳār.

Ḏj̲ayb-i Humāyūn

(138 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the privy purse of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the authority of the privy secretary ( Sirr kātibi ), it provided for the immediate needs and expenses of the sovereign. Its regular revenues consisted of the tribute from Egypt (see irsāliyye ), the income from the imperial domains (see k̲h̲āṣṣ ), and the proceeds from gardens, orchards, forests etc. belonging to or attached to the imperial palaces. Irregular revenues included the fees paid by newly appointed rulers of Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania and, for a while, Ragusa, the Sultan’s share…


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), the verbal noun from hallala , form II verb, with two differing etymologies and meanings. (1) From hilāl , the new moon, meaning “jubilation or excitement at seeing the new moon” [see hilāl. i; talbiya ]. (2) From the formula la ilāha illā ’llāh , the first and main element of the Islamic profession of faith or s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.]. The verbal form is here obtained by the so-called procedure of naḥt “cutting out, carving out”. The tahīl then denotes the pronouncing, in a high and intelligible voice, of the formula in question, which implies formal and basic recognition of the divine unity. (Ed.…


(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “The act of praising”, a minor genre of mediaeval Arabic literature which consisted of statements praising the virtues of a particular work, some composed after the death of the author of the work in question but probably for the most part composed at the time of the work’s appearance with the aim of giving it a puff and thus advertising it; such statements must have been solicited by the author from obliging friends and colleagues, the more eminent the better. F. Rosenthal (see below) has felicitously compared them to modern ¶ “blurbs” of publishers to…

Isḥāḳ Sükūtī

(251 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Young Turk leader, was born in 1868, probably of Kurdish extraction. As a student at the Military Médical School in Istanbul, he was in May 1889 one of the original group of founders of the Secret Committee, which eventually developed into the Committee of Union and Progress [see ittiḥād we-teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyeti ]. Later, in 1895, he was exiled to Rhodes but managed to escape and went to Paris, where he associated with the Young Turk émigrés. In 1897, with others, he founded the anti-government journal Osmanli ( ʿUt̲h̲mānli̊ ), which was published in Geneva. …


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ


(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the act of bowing, bending”, a sequence of utterances and actions performed by the Muslim believer as part of the act of worship or ṣalāt , involving utterance of the takbīr and Fātiḥa , then the bending of the body from an upright position ( rukūʿ ) and then two prostrations ( sud̲j̲ūd ). See further ṣalāt . (Ed.)

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…


(244 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a branch of the Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [q. v.], which originated in southern Morocco, at the zāwiya of Tāmgrūt [ q.v.], which had been founded in 983/1575 by a member of a family of marabouts. The order owes its name to the Ibn Nāṣir family [ q.v. in Suppl.], who headed the zāwiya from the time of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Maḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Nāṣir b. ʿAmr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān (1015-85/1603-74), the founder (1070/1660), onwards. It was however his son Aḥmad b. Maḥammad (1057-1129/1647-1717) who was responsible for organising the order. (Ed.) Bibliography To the …


(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of the crags west of Medina, occasionally mentioned in connection with the mountain T̲h̲abīr ( Sīrat al-Ḥabas̲h̲a , 86). Lying behind Yanbuʿ, between the regions of Madyan [see madyan s̲h̲uʿayb ] and Mecca, they were known to Ptolemy (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , nos. 28, 30) and are mentioned by Ibn Isḥāḳ ( The life of Muhammad , tr. 413, 542). Al-Hamad̲h̲ānī quotes a tradition, according to which the Prophet said: “May God be satisfied ( raḍiya ) with it (Raḍwā)!” Abū Karib, leader of the Kuraybiyya [ q.v.], a sub-sect of the Kaysāniyya, is said to have believed that M…

Fed̲j̲r-i Ātī

(48 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the coming dawn, a Turkish literary group active in the period following the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, and associated with the review T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn [ q.v.], where its initial manifesto was published. See further turks, ¶ literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)


(581 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Fāris (1875?-1962) a Syrian politician, a Christian, who played a very important role over a period of almost half a century. Born in a Lebanese village on the slopes of Mount Hermon, he studied at Ṣaydā then at the school in Beirut which was later to become the American University, while also working as a teacher. When family affairs took him to Damascus in 1899, he took up residence in the Syrian capital, learned Turkish and French and was employed as an interpreter in t…


(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
“the two sūras of taking refuge [from evil]”, the name given to the two last sūras (CXIII and CXIV) of the Ḳurʾān, because they both begin with the words ḳul : aʿūd̲h̲u bi-rabbī . . . min . . . , “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of. . . against . . . “, and are pronounced as prayers intended to dispel the evils engendered by the devil, evil spirits, the practice of magic, etc. The plural al-muʿawwid̲h̲āt is also found equally applied to these two sūras and to ¶ the preceding one, set forth in the form of a credo; this plural appears especially in al-Buk̲h̲ārī ( daʿawāt , bāb 12) in re…


(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya


(284 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Taroudant, a town in the Sūs region of southern Morocco situated in lat. 30° 31′ N., long. 8° 55′ W. at an altitude of 250 m/820 feet. It lies 4 km/2½ miles from ¶ the right bank of the Wādr Sūs and some 83 km/51 miles from Āgādīr [ q.v.] and the Adantic coast. The old town is enclosed by a lengthy, high, early 18th-century crenellated wall with five gates. Tārūdānt was an important town in mediaeval Islamic times. It formed part of the Almoravid empire from 421/1030 onwards, but a century later was conquered by the Almohads. It was at Tārūdānt that…

Leo Africanus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the author of the Descrittione dell’ Africa is generally known, who was in fact originally called al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Wazzān al-Zayyātī (or al-Fāsī). He was born in Granada between 894 and 901/1489 and 1495 into a family which had to emigrate to Morocco after that city’s fall [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], and was brought up in Fās, where he received a good education and very soon entered the service of the administration there. Whilst still a student, he was employed for two years in the mental hospital, which he describes in detail ( Description , tr. Epaulard, i, 188 [see bīmāristān…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a city of the Pegu district of Burma and the country’s capital, situated on the Rangoon (Hlaing) River (lat. 16° 47′ N., 96° 10′ E.). It was developed as a port in the mid-18th century by the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings, with a British trading factory soon established there and with flourishing groups of Parsee, Armenian and Muslim merchants. In 1852, during the Second Anglo-Burmese War, it passed definitively under British ¶ control, and Rangoon became a more modern city, and also, through immigration, largely Indian in composition. These last includ…


(555 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bag̲h̲būr , title of the Emperor of China in the Muslim sources. The Sanskrit * bhagaputra and the Old Iranian * bag̲h̲aput̲h̲ra , with which attempts have been made to connect this compound, are not attested, but a form bg̲h̲pwhr (= * bag̲h̲puhr ), signifying etymologically “son of God”, is attested in Parthian Pahlavī to designate Jesus, whence Sogdian bag̲h̲pūr , Arabicized as bag̲h̲būr and fag̲h̲fūr ; these forms were felt by the Arab authors as the translation of the Chinese T’ien tzŭ “son of heaven” (cf. Relation de la Chine et de l’Inde , ed. and tr. J. Sau…


(272 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval” (see Lane, 1100), a term found in Ṣūfī mysticism and also in early Islamic history. 1. In mystical vocabulary. In the Ḳurʾān, the root raḍiya and its derivatives occur frequently in the general sense of “to be content”, with nominal forms like riḍwān “God’s grace, acceptance of man’s submission” (e.g. III, 156/61, 168/174; IV, 13/12; IX, 73/72; LVII, 20, 27), although the actual form riḍā does not occur. In the writings of the proto-Ṣūfī al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.], it is a moral state, contentment with t…

al-Ḥaddād, al-Ṭāhir

(589 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nationalist and reformist Tunisian writer, considered as the pioneer of the movement for feminine liberation in his country. Born in Tunis ca. 1899 into a family of modest status originally from the Ḥāma of Gabès, he studied at the Zaytūna [ q.v.] from 1911 to 1920 and gained the taṭwīʿ (corresponding to the diploma for completing secondary education). He then took part in the trade union movement and was put in charge of propaganda in an organisation founded in 1924, the D̲j̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya , ¶ whose chief promoters were hunted down and banished in 1925. His…
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