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(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), lit. “writer, secretary” < Tkis̲h̲. yaz- “write”, hence the Turkish equivalent of kātib , dabīr and muns̲h̲ī . The term was used in Ottoman times for the clerks in the various government departments, such as the ¶ treasury, with a bas̲h̲ yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ at their head. It could also be used for the secretaries of high court and military officials, e.g. of the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ “Chief Eunuch of the Women”, who was also, in the 10th/16th century, in charge of the ewḳāf for the Ḥaramayn, Mecca and Medina, and other great mosques of the empire [see Ḥaramayn , at Vol. III, 175b]. (Ed.) Bibliography Gi…


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), verbal noun of the verb kaffa in the sense of “to abstain, desist [from],” and “to repel [s.o. from]” (see WbKAS , i, Letter Kāf , 236-9), in a religio-political context refers to the quiescent attitude of some K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite [ q.v.] groups in early Islam, called ḳaʿada “those who sit down”, i.e. stay at home, in abstaining from overt rebellion and warfare against the ruling authority. See further ḳuʿūd . (Ed.)


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the term used in Ottoman Turkish military terminology for cannon, with ṭopd̲j̲u denoting a member of the corps of artillerymen and Ṭopk̲h̲āne being the name for the central arsenal in Istanbul. The Ṭopk̲h̲āne Gate there has given its name, in popular parlance, to the adjacent imperial palace; see ṭopḳapi̊ sarāyi̊ . The word tob / top originally in Turkish denoted “ball”, hence cannon-ball; it appears in almost all the Turkic languages and passed into the usage of Persian, the Caucasian and the Balkan languages, etc. See Doerfer, Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen

Yūsuf K̲h̲ān Riḍwī

(131 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Mīrzā, Mug̲h̲al commander and governor, d. 1010/1601-2. The son of Mīrzā Aḥmad Riḍwī, he was appointed by the Emperor Akbar ṣūbadār or governor of Kas̲h̲mīr in 995/1586-7. He imposed Mug̲h̲al authority in the Kas̲h̲mīr valley and secured the submission of the Čak [ q.v. in Suppl.] chiefs. Yūsuf K̲h̲ān himself rebelled against the Mug̲h̲als in 1001/1592-3, but came back into favour and in 1003/1594-5 was dārūg̲h̲a or superintendent of the Ṭop-k̲h̲āna or arsenal. (Ed.) Bibliography Mohibbul Hasan, Kashmir under the sultans, Calcutta 1959, index A.R. Khan, Chieftains of the Mughal …


(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., lit. “separated”, “hived off”), in Indo-Muslim pronunciation mufaṣṣil , whence the British Indian conventional form Mofussil , an informal term of British Indian administrative usage, attested in British usage from the later 18th century but probably going back to Mug̲h̲al official usage. It denoted the provinces, the rural districts and stations, as opposed to the administrative headquarters of a Presidency, District or region, the ṣadr (in the Anglo-Indian usage of the Bengal Presidency, the Sudder ); hence going into the Mofussil could mean something like going into …


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of the pl. of the Arabic verbal noun taklīf “the act of imposing something [on someone]”, in this case, taxation. In Ottoman Turkish usage, tekālīf was used in the general sense of taxes, more or less synonymously with other terms like resm [ q.v.]. Writings on fiscal topics distinguished tekālīf-i s̲h̲erʿiyye , canonical taxes in accordance with the S̲h̲arīʿa (e.g. the zakāt , ʿus̲h̲r , k̲h̲arād̲j̲ . and d̲j̲izya ) from tekālīf-i fewḳalʿāde “extraordinary ones”, which could include ʿörfī ones, those imposed by the sultan an…


(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(local Kurdish d̲j̲wānrō ), a district of Persian Kurdistān lying to the west of Mt. S̲h̲āhō, between Avroman (Hawermān [ q.v.]) in the north, S̲h̲ahrizūr in the west, and Zuhāb and Rawānsar in the south and east. The country is generally mountainous and thickly wooded. The valleys are well watered and very fertile, being in effect the granary of the Avroman area. There is no river now known by this name, but Minorsky derives it from * Ḏj̲āwān-rūd , influenced by Persian d̲j̲awān ‘young’. A Kurdish tribe D̲j̲āwānī, listed by Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 253; Tanbīh , 88),…

Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, al-barāmika . 1. Origins; to the Bibl . there should be added Le Strange, Lands , 421-2; Barthold, An historical geography of Iran , Princeton 1984, 14-15; R.W. Bulliet, Naw Bahār and the survival of Iranian Buddh…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī

(224 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Anṣārī , Andalusian poet, historian and traditionist, born at Granada in 467/1074. He had a profound knowledge of Arabic language and literature, and was a prolific poet, particularly of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt . He was kātib of the amīr Abu Muḥammad Tās̲h̲fīn at Granada; but his fame rests on a history of the Almoravid dynasty entitled Taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla al-lamtūniyya or al-Anwār al-d̲j̲aliyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawla al-murābiṭiyya ; at first ending at the year 530/1135 6, then continued by the author until short…

Körfüz, Körfüs

(305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(the first spelling in e.g. Pīrī Reʾīs and Rās̲h̲id, the second in Pečewī), the Turkish name for the island of Corfu off the coast of Epirus. Pīrī Reʾīs gives a full account of the island, together with a map, in his Baḥriyye (ed. Kahle, Berlin and Leipzig 1926-7, i, 113-16, No. 54). The Ottomans never succeeded in dislodging from Corfu the Venetians, who controlled it from the opening of the 15th century until 1797, but there were two major Turkish attempts to occupy the island. The first took place in Rabīʿ I 944/August 1537 in the reign of Süleymān the Magnificent. The fleet …


(997 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lice (the individual louse being ḳamla ; some authorities believe that ḳaml applies only to females and that for males the term is ṣuʾāb , pl. ṣiʾbān , although the latter designates rather the nits). The family to which This hemipterous insect belongs has numerous species, but Arabic does not seem to have distinguished between them, for not even the head-louse ( pediculus capitis) and the body-louse ( p. vestimenti) are treated separately. Although the existence of nits which clung to the skin was known of, the louse was thought to be engendered spontaneously i…


(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also d̲j̲urm , a sin, fault, offence. In Ottoman usage, in the forms d̲j̲erīme and d̲j̲ereme , it denoted fines and penalties (see d̲j̲urm). In the modern laws enacted in Muslim countries it has become a technical term for crime ( d̲j̲urm in Pakistan). For the corresponding Islamic concepts, see ḥadd , and for penal law in general, ʿuḳūba . (Ed.)


(81 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the verbal noun from the form II verb warraḳa , literally, “the act of putting forth leaves, branches”, used as a term of art and architecture in the sense of arabesque, pattern of vegetal adornment and decoration. Al-tawrīḳ was taken into mediaeval Spanish usage as ataurique , whence Pedro de Alcala’s definition pintura de lazos morisca, tavrîq (Dozy and Engelmann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l’Arabe 2 , Leiden 1869, 214). See further, arabesque. (Ed.)

Pas̲h̲a Ḳapusu, Wezīr Ḳapusu

(85 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term of ¶ Ottoman administration denoting the building presented by Sultan Meḥemmed IV in 1064/1654 to the Grand Vizier Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a and intended to serve both as an official residence and as an office; after the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] period it became known as the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī [ q.v.] or Sublime Porte, and soon came to house most of the administrative departments of the Dīwān-i̊ Hümāyūn [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography M.Z. Pakalin, Osmanli tarih deyimleri ve terimleri sözlügü, Istanbul 1946-54, ii, 757.


(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the night-blind”, is the surname of a number of early Arab poets (17 in all; see al-Āmidī, al-Muʾtalif , 12 ff.; Ag̲h̲āni , index; L.A., s.v.); each of them is connected with a tribe (Aʿs̲h̲ā Banī Fulān) and, apart from the most celebrated of their number, al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bakr (or the Ḳays) [ q.v.] and al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Hamdān [ q.v.], the following are worthy of note: al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bāhila (ʿĀmir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Riyāḥ) who is included among the aṣḥāb al-marāt̲h̲ī by Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , ed. S̲h̲ākir, 169, 175 (with refs.); see also al-Buḥturī, Ḥamāsa , index; Abu Zayd al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, Ḏj̲a…


(91 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Dald̲j̲ab. Ḳunāfa al-Kalbī (full genealogy in al-Tabarī, ii, 204, 428, and see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, i, Table 286, ii, 572), tribal chief of the Kalb in Syria [see kalb b. wabara ], fl. in the early part of the 7th century. His son Baḥdal was the father of Maysūn [ q.v.], wife of the Umayyad caliph Muʿāwiya I and mother of Yazīd I, and a strenuous supporter of the Sufyānid cause. (Ed.) Bibliography See also H. Lammens, Etudes sur le règne du calife Moʿâwia Ier , in MFOB, iii (1908), 150.

Ḳardā and Bāzabdā

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ancient districts of Upper Mesopotamia (al-D̲j̲azīra), often mentioned together. The first place derives its name from Bēth Ḳardū, the land of the Carduci, which became Bāḳardā; according to Yāḳūt, s.v., this form is found “in the books”, but the local people say Ḳardā. The district comprised ca. 200 villages, the most notable being al-D̲j̲ūdī and T̲h̲amānīn, and the district of Faysabūr; it produced mainly corn and barley. The original chef-lieu , Ḳardā, lost its importance and was replaced by Bāsūrīn. Bāzabdā, for its part, is the name of a district…


(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebey s [ q.v.] in Ottoman Anatolia, who controlled the districts ( nāḥiyes ) of Tiyek, Ekbez and Hacılar in the eastern parts of the Amanus Mountains or Gâvur Daği (in the hinterland of Iskenderun [see iskandarūn ] in modern Turkey). They claimed hereditary power in the area from the time of Sultan Murād IV (1032-49/1623-40), when the latter, in the course of his campaign against the Persians in ¶ Bag̲h̲dād, granted these districts to a local shepherd ( ćobān ). By the 19th century, the family was divided into two branches, one controlling…
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