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Parker, Matthew

(290 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1504, Norwich – May 17, 1575, Lambeth), son of a well-to-do weaver, studied at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge from 1522 to 1528; he remained close to the college throughout his life, being elected master in 1544. His collection of medieval manuscripts became the core of the college’s Parker Library. At Cambridge Parker was won to the Protestant cause (T. Bilney, H. Latimer). In 1535 Anne Boleyn, the mother of Elizabeth I, appointed Parker, now a well-known preacher, a…

Knox, John (I)

(604 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1514 [?], Haddington, East Lothian – Nov 24, 1572, Edinburgh). As a theologian and church politician, Knox shaped the introduction of Protestantism to Scotland. Little is known about his background, youth, and intellectual development. Knox himself said nothing about these matters. After his studies, probably in St. Andrews, and his ordination to the priesthood (c. 1536), he initially worked as a notary and private tutor in the service of nobility in Lothian who sympathized with …

Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit

(312 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] is the term for a number of individuals and groups persecuted as heretical; they do not constitute a homogeneous organization, even if some connections exist between individual representatives – mostly laypersons, including a disproportionately large number of women. Nor can a unified doctrinal system be identified. More instructive than the stereotypical lists of heresies, as were produced by the church in the context of persecution, are direct sources from the series of Brothers and Sisters, especially the Miroir des simples âmes of Marguerite …

Charles II of England

(189 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Stuart of England; May 29, 1630, London – Feb 2, 1685, London), king of England. The son of the executed Charles I of England, he was exiled in 1651, but answered the call of his country to assume the crown in 1660. Thus began the Restoration period, which was characterized by a balance of power with respect to the interests of the Crown and of Parliament as well as by the reestablishment of the Anglican state church (Church of England, Anglic…

Netter, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Waldensis; c. 1372, Saffron Walden,Essex –Nov 2, 1430, Rouen), Carmelite monk. Ordained to the priesthood in 1396, he studied and taught theology in Oxford. He was court preacher to Henry IV and confessor to his successors. As a convinced conciliarist he took part in the reforming Councils of Basel (Basel, Council of) and Pisa (Pisa, Council of); he attended the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) as his king’s representative and (from 1414) provincial of his order. He f…

Ridley

(260 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Ridley, Nicholas (um 1502, Willimoteswick [?], Northumberland – 16.10.1555 Oxford), studierte seit 1518 in Cambridge (Pembroke Hall; B.A. 1521, M.A. 1526); 1524 machte ihn sein College zum Fellow. In diese Zeit fällt auch die Priesterweihe in Ely. Nach einer weiteren Studienzeit in Paris und Löwen setzte R. seine akademische Karriere in Cambridge fort (B.D. 1537, D.D. und Wahl zum Master von Pembroke Hall 1540); er verließ die Stadt jedoch bereits 1537, denn Th. Cranmer, den R. sp…

Parker

(242 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Parker, Matthew (6.8.1504 Norwich – 17.5.1575 Lambeth). Der Sohn eines wohlhabenden Webers studierte am Corpus Christi College in Cambridge (1522–1528), dem er zeitlebens verbunden blieb (1544 Master; Stiftung seiner Sammlung ma. Hsn.). In Cambridge wurde P. auch für den Protestantismus gewonnen (Th. Bilney, H. Latimer). 1535 machte Anne Boleyn, Mutter Elisabeths I., den mittlerweile renommierten Prediger zu ihrem Kaplan. Gleichzeitig verfolgte P. seine akademische Karriere (1544 …

Pole

(296 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Pole, Reginald (3.3.1500 Stourton Castle, Staffordshire – 17.11.1558 Lambeth, heute Stadtbezirk von London), Abkömmling des Hochadels und mit Heinrich VIII. von England verwandt, wurde in seiner Ausbildung an den Universitäten Oxford und Padua vom König gefördert. Er trat in Verbindung mit engl. und ital. Humanisten (Th. Morus, P. Bembo) und korrespondierte mit Erasmus von Rotterdam. Auf Druck der Familie nach England zurückgekehrt, setzte er seine Studien in der Kartause Sheen fo…

Wolsey

(344 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] , Thomas (1472 [?] Ipswich – 29.11.1530 Leicester). Nach dem Studium in Oxford (New College), der Priesterweihe (1501) und einer Zeit als Hofkaplan des Erzbf. von Canterbury wurde der Sohn eines Gastwirtes und Metzgers 1507 Kaplan Heinrichs VII.; unter dessen Nachfolger (Heinrich VIII.) begann seine Karriere in Kirche und Staat: Seit 1511 königlicher Berater, wurde er 1514 Bf. von Lincoln und später im Jahr Erzbf. von York, 1515 Kardinal und Lordkanzler. Obwohl W. Warham als Erzbf…

Pecock

(203 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (Peacock; Pavo), Reginald (um 1393 Wales – 1460/61 Thorney Abbey, Cambridgeshire). Nach dem Studium der Theol. in Oxford (seit 1409) war P. als Pfarrer, später als Bischof (1444 St. Asaph, 1450 Chichester) tätig. Trotz verschiedener Schriften gegen die Lollarden geriet P. 1457 in Häresieverdacht; er mußte widerrufen, mehrere seiner Werke wurden verbrannt. Nach dem Amtsverzicht 1459 lebte P., mit Schreibverbot belegt, unter Hausarrest in Thorney. Gegen den Biblizismus der Lollarden …

Thomas Becket

(287 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (21.12.1120 [?] London – 29.12.1170 Canterbury). Der Sohn eines Kaufmannes wurde nach dem Studium in Paris 1143 in den Haushalt des Erzbf. Theobald von Canterbury aufgenommen, der ihn 1154 zum Archidiakon von Canterbury weihte; 1155 machte Heinrich II. ihn zu seinem Kanzler. Th. war ehrgeizig und pflegte einen aufwendigen Lebensstil, galt aber als hochbegabt und unbestechlich. Als Vertrauter des Königs setzte er dessen Politik auch gegen die Interessen der Kirche durch. Das änder…

More, Sir Thomas

(432 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Morus; Feb 6/7, 1477/1478, London – Jul 6, 1535, London), prominent English Humanist, politician, and controversial theologian (Controversial theology). The son of a jurist, he attended school in London and subsequently became a page in the household of Cardinal Archbishop John Morton (1420–1500), who sent him to Oxford to study. In spite of his academic interests, his father insisted on an additional legal training at the Inns of Court. Thomas More worked as a lawyer from 1501 o…

Latimer, Hugh

(177 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485, Thurcaston, Leicestershire – Oct 16, 1555, Oxford). The son of a free peasant, Latimer studied theology from 1506 onward at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A. 1510, M.A. 1514). Having initially defended the old faith as a preacher and university lecturer, he joined the Reformation around 1524 under the influence of T. Bilney. Highly esteemed at the court of Henry VIII for a time (appointment as bishop of Worcester in 1535), he fell out of favor from ¶ 1539 during the turmoil surrounding Anne Boleyn; he delivered his most famous sermons under Edward VI. …

Manton, Thomas

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1620, Lydeard St. Lawrence – Oct 18, 1677, London). After studying at Wadham College, Oxford (BA 1639), Manton, the son of a clergyman, began to preach and rapidly became the undisputed leader of the Presbyterians in London. He rose ¶ to become a scribe for the Westminster Assembly and often preached before the Long Parliament. After the fall of O. Cromwell, he sympathized with the Restoration under Charles II, but when the hopes of the Nonconformists (Dissenters) for concessions from the Anglicans were dashed, he refu…

Lollards

(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Ebner, Christina

(268 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Good Friday, 1277, Nuremberg – Dec 27, 1356, Engelthal Convent). The patrician's daughter entered the Engelthal Convent (Dominican) at the age of twelve. Her uncompromising conceptualization of the imitatio Christi and cloistered lifestyle led to corporal suffering and isolation within the community. Beginning in 1291, Ebner had extraordinary spiritual experiences that brought her fame in subsequent decades even outside her convent (1350…

Westminster

(449 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] I. Römisch-katholisches Erzbistum Nach der Reformation in England hatte die röm.-kath. Minderheit unter zahlreichen verfassungsmäßigen und sozialen Benachteiligungen zu leiden. Auch nach der Gleichstellung der Katholiken 1829 blieben antikath. Vorurteile zurück. Seit den 80er Jahren des 17.Jh. nahmen vier Bischöfe, die als Apostolische Vikare dienten, kath. Interessen in England wahr; 1840 kamen vier weitere hinzu. Diverse Faktoren, zumal der Zustrom irischer Einwanderer, das Aufko…

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…

Women

(11,554 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Bird, Phyllis A. | Wischmeyer, Oda | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise | Albrecht, Ruth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Traditionally research on religion has rarely dealt with women. Exceptions include Moriz Winternitz ( Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, 1915–1916) and F. Heiler ( Die Frau in den Religionen der Menschheit, 1977). In the 1970s, gender studies introduced a broad paradigm shift, which also affected religious studies. The principle that has guided this change from the traditional approach is that homo religiosus is not coincident with vir religiosus but equally has to include femina religiosa. The various questions can be assigned to th…
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