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Mulomedicina Chironis

(324 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Klaus (Bonn)
[German version] The MC which was allegedly written by the centaur Chiron (Chiron Centaurus) and was published for the first time in 1901, represents Antiquity's most important work on veterinary medicine. Its subjects are the illnesses of horses and mules which are treated by largely dispensing with medical theories (there are traces here and there of methodist concepts). There are parallels here with human medicine as well as in surgical treatment which is sometimes described in detail. The orig…

Arabic Studies

(1,934 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) | Fischer, Wolfdietrich (Erlangen RWG)
Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) [German version] A. Definition (CT) ‘Arabic studies ’(AS) designates the philological investigation of the Arabic language and of the works composed in that language. As a linguistic discipline it is a part of Semitic studies; as a cultural discipline, it is the central focus for Islamic studies. Fischer, Wolfdietrich (Erlangen RWG) [German version] B. The Beginnings of Arabic Studies in Europe (CT) Although a number of works of AS as well as religious writings were translated into Latin by the school of translators founded by Alfonso X …


(37 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Fischer, Klaus (Bonn)
[German version] (Λάβακα; Lábaka). According to Ptol. 7,1,46, city in north-west India, in the land of the Pandoi (probably Old Indian Pāṇḍava). Renger, Johannes (Berlin) Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 239.


(1,653 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt The incidence of lions (Sumerian ur-maḫ, ur-gula, pirig; Akkadian nēšu, labbu; Egyptian rw, mj) is first attested for Mesopotamia in the Ur III period (2112-2004 BC). Sources subsequently only rarely mention their occurrence in Babylonia; on the other hand, there are many references from the middle Euphrates region and from Assyria (letters from Mari, hunting accounts of Neo-Assyrian kings). In Egypt lions were depicted from the prehistoric period and are attested well beyond the New Kingdom (1550-1070). In Egypt as well as in Mesopotamia, the lion was particularly associated with the person of the ruler; hunting (e.g. by the Ur III ruler Šulgi or Assyrian kings) and keeping lions (attested …


(1,153 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Klaus (Bonn) | Fischer, Robert (Baden-Baden) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] O. maior Augustus' half sister S…