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Simonius

(128 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] D. S. Proculus Iulianus, Senator, homo novus mit Karriere unter 7 Kaisern, wohl aus It., Landbesitz in der Poebene und eine Villa in Rom. S. war ca. 234-235 n. Chr. iuridicus per Transpadum, 236 Statthalter Thrakiens (IGR I 691-693), 237-238 legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Arabiae (CIL III 14149, 33; AE 1904, 67) und 238 wohl cos. suff. [1. 66; 2. 232]; Statthalter, vielleicht von Pannonia inferior um 238/9-240, dann der tres Daciae 241-243 (CIL III 1573; VI 1520 = ILS 1189; [3. 206 f.]); 244-245 leg. Aug. pro praetore provinciae Syriae Coeles (CIL VI 152…

Macrianus

(115 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] [3] Iunior Imp. Caes. T. Fulvius Iunius Macrianus Augustus, älterer Sohn des Fulvius Macrianus [2]; unter Valerianus [2] Militärtribun (SHA trig. tyr. 12,10; Zon. 12,24 D.). Nach der Gefangennahme des Valerianus durch die Perser erhob sein Vater ihn und seinen Bruder Quietus vor dem 17. Sept. 260 n. Chr. zu Augusti, die jedoch nur im Osten anerkannt wurden (RIC 5,2, 589 f.; SHA Gall. 1,3-5; SHA trig. tyr. 12,10-12; POxy. 3476,12 f.; IGR III 27). Auf dem Zug nach Westen fiel M. 261 …

Trebonianus Gallus

(242 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] Imp. Caes. C. Vibius T. Gallus Augustus (CIL XI 1927), röm. Kaiser Juni 251 bis August(?) 253 n. Chr. Geb. um 206 in Perusia, aus vornehmer Familie (Aur. Vict. epit. Caes. 31,1), Senator, cos. suff. ca. 245 n. Chr. (Dexippos FGrH 100 F 22), Statthalter der Prov. Moesia inferior 250/1 n. Chr. [1. 103 f.]. Bei Novae [1] stellte er sich den Goten (Goti) unter ihrem König Kniva erfolgreich entgegen (Iord. Get. 101 f.). Zu ihm rettete sich Kaiser Decius [II 1] nach seiner Niederlage bei Beroia [2] gegen die Goten. Beide zusammen …

Tigidius

(199 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] Mächtiger praefectus praetorio unter Kaiser Commodus. Sex.(?) T. Perennis hatte wohl schon unter Marcus [2] Aurelius den hohen Rang eines praefectus [4] annonae erreicht (sein Name eradiert in der Tabula Banasitana ; AE 1971, 534) und war dann neben Tarrutenius Paternus von Commodus zum praefectus praetorio ernannt worden (SHA Comm. 4,7; 14,8; ungenau Herodian. 1,8,1); mit ihm beseitigte er Saoteros, dessen einflußreichen Kämmerer (SHA Comm. 4,5). Kurz darauf erreichte T. die Hinrichtung des Paternus (Cass. Dio 72,10,1; SHA…

Theodotus

(83 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] Aurelius Th. amtierte vom 14.8.262 bis 8.11.263 n. Chr. als praefectus Aegypti (P Straßburg I 5; POxy. XVII 2107; 1467) und besiegte für Kaiser Gallienus den Usurpator L. Mussius Aemilianus (SHA Gall. 4,2; SHA trig. tyr. 22,8), um danach die Verwaltung Äg.s zu übernehmen. Wahrscheinlich ist er auch identisch mit dem Th., der um 262 in Afrika gegen den Usurpator Memor kämpfte (Zos. 1,38,1; Petros Patrikios, Excerpta de sententiis, 264 Nr. 160 Boissevain). Franke, Thomas Bibliography PIR T 120  PLRE 1, 906.

Sempronia

(262 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] [1] Tochter des Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus, 2. Jh. v. Chr. Tochter des Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus und der Cornelia [I 1] (Plut., Ti. Gracchus 1,3), seit 150 v. Chr. in kinderloser Ehe mit P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus verheiratet, dessen Tod sie 129 v. Chr. mitverschuldet haben soll (App. civ. 1,20 (83); Liv. per. 59). Trotz der drohenden Haltung des Volkes lehnte sie es 102 oder 101 v. Chr. ab, L. Equitius [1] als ihren Neffen anzuerkennen (Val. Max. 3,8,6). Franke, Thomas Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1994, 48-50. …

Triginta Tyranni

(224 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] Unter der Bezeichnung t.t. nennt der fiktive Autor Trebellius Pollio in der Historia Augusta 32 Usurpatoren aus allen Reichsteilen angeblich in der Zeit der Kaiser Valerianus [2] und Gallienus (253-268), um deren Regierung als bes. schwach und schlecht zu erweisen. Die anfangs geplante Zahl von 20 (SHA Gall. 21,1) erhöht er in Anspielung auf die athen. Dreißig Tyrannen ( triákonta ) auf 30 (SHA trig. tyr. 2-31), darunter besonders höhnisch (31,7) zwei Frauen, Zenobia aus Palmyra (30) und Victoria in Gallien (31), die er…

Soldatenkaiser

(147 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas
[English version] Mit dem Begriff S. bezeichnete zuerst [1. 13] die Kaiser ‘vom Ausgang des Commodus bis zum Regierungsantritt Diokletians’ (192-284 n. Chr.), doch wird h. allg. die Dyn. der Severer (193-235 n. Chr.; Septimius [II 5]) davon getrennt (so schon [2. 393-468]: Severer = Militärmonarchie, anschließend Militäranarchie) und nur die Zeit von Maximinus [2] Thrax (235-238) bis Diocletianus (284-305) als Zeit der S. bzw. ‘Krise des 3. Jh. n. Chr.’ benannt. Der Begriff grenzt die Wirren des 3…

Regalianus

(157 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caesar P. C[...] R. Augustus (RIC V/2, 586 f.; [1]). Governor in Illyricum, probably of Dacian descent. In AD 260, after the overthrow of Ingenuus [1] by Aureolus at Mursa, he was proclaimed anti-emperor to Gallienus by the Danube troops (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,1; Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,3; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Pol. Silv. Chronica minora 1,521,45). He fought the Sarmatae, who had already been threatening the lower Danube provinces for some time (SHA Tyr. Trig. 10,2). A sho…

Soldier emperors

(177 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The term SE was first [1. 13] used to describe the emperors "from the end of the reign of Commodus until the beginning of that of Diocletian" (AD 192-284), but today the Severan dynasty (AD 193-235; Septimius [II 7]) is generally kept separate (as already [2. 393-468]: Severans = military monarchy, subsequently military anarchy) and only the period from Maximinus [2] Thrax (235-238) to Diocletianus (284-305) is called the period of the SE or the "Crisis of the 3rd cent. AD." The t…

Gallienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imp. Caes. P. Licinius Egnatius G. Augustus, born c. AD 218 near Milan ([Aur. Vict.] epit. Caes. 33,3), son of the later emperor P. Licinius Valerianus and Egnatia Mariniana. Valerian, who had himself proclaimed emperor in September/October 253, immediately appointed G. Caesar, then Augustus, and had this confirmed by the Senate with a territorial allocation of responsibilities: Valerian went to the east to confront the Persian threat, G. went to the west to defend the Rhine and Danube bo…

Herennianus

(87 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] The younger son of  Odaenathus and  Zenobia (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2; 17,2; 24,4; 27; 28; 30). Following the death of his father he and his elder brother Timolaus received the ornamenta imperatoria, while their mother ruled on behalf of the under-age children (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1; 30,2; SHA Aurel. 22,1; 38,1). Later, however, her third son  Vaballathus assumed power. H. was probably killed by Aurelian (SHA Tyr. Trig. 27,1f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography PIR2 H 95 PLRE 1, 421 (H. 1).

Pescennius

(442 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor AD 193-194, of Italian origin, born between AD 135 and 140 in Aquinum (?) (SHA Pesc. Nig. 1,3). P. initially completed the equestrian cursus honorum: he was praefectus cohortis during the reign of Marcus [2] Aurelius and served twice as tribunus militum under Commodus (SHA Pesc. Nig. 4,2; 4,4), who admitted him to the Praetorian guard ( adlectus inter praetorios). Between AD 180 and 183, P. held the office of consul ( cos. suff., Hdn. 2,7,4; [1. 138; 2. 138f.]) and may have proved his military ability …

Quartinus

(118 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] Titus (?) Q. was a friend of the emperor Severus Alexander with consular rank. After the failed attempt at usurpation, directed against Maximinus [2] Thrax by Magnus [2] on the Rhine in AD 235, Q. was proclaimed rival emperor by eastern troops; however, only a little later he was murdered at the instigation of Macedo [2] (Hdn. 7,1,4-11; SHA Maximini duo 11,2; fictitious: SHA Tyr. Trig. 32). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 21996, 186 f.  X. Loriot, Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la mo…

Gordianus

(707 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Imp. Caes. M. Antonius G. Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Aug. Augustus in Carthage AD 238 (G.I.), born in c. AD 159, the son of Maecius Marullus and Ulpia Gordiana (Hdn. 7,5,2; SHA Gord. 2,2; Zon. 12,17 p. 127 D.). After a successful cursus honorum (SHA Gord. 3,5-8; 4,1), he became suffect consul, probably under Elagabalus. In 216, he was governor in Britannia inferior (RIB 1, 1049), soon after in Achaea [2. 181ff.], perhaps also in Syria. In 237, he was allotted the proconsulate of the province of Africa [5; 6. 89f. N. 21]. In Thysdrus (modern El Djem, Tunesia…

Memor

(63 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] M. was a Moor placed in charge of the grain supply in Egypt In the reign of Gallienus. Apparently he planned a coup. He was killed by soldiers on the orders of Theodotus ca. 262 AD, without having been proclaimed emperor (Zos. 1,38,1; Petrus Patricius, Excerpta de sententiis, p. 264 No. 160 Boissevain). PIR2 M 490. Franke, Thomas (Bochum)

Odaenathus

(426 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Greek Ὀδαίναθος, Odaínathos). [German version] [1] Murderer of Septimius O. [2] O. murdered the ruler of Palmyra, Septimius O. [2], probably in the spring of AD 267, when the latter was travelling through Cappadocia to Heraclea [7] Pontica to expel the Goths from Asia Minor. O. himself was then killed by the guards of his victim (Sync. 717). However, this is contradicted by other sources that name a consobrinus,Maeonius (SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,5; 17,1), or the nephew of the Palmyrenian prince as the murderer (Zon. 12,24 D.). According to Zosimus (1,39,2), the deed w…

Sempronia

(272 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus, 2nd cent. BC Daughter of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracchus and Cornelia [I 1] (Plut., Ti. Gracchus 1,3), from 150 BC in a childless marriage with P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus, for whose death in 129 BC she is supposed to have been partly to blame (App. B Civ. 1,20 (83); Liv. Per. 59). Despite the threatening demeanour of the people, in 102 or 101 BC she refused to acknowledge L. Equitius [1] as her nephew (Val. Max. 3,8,6). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, 1994, 48-50. …

Opellius

(160 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Emperor, 3rd cent. AD Imp. Caes. M.O. (Antoninus) Diadumenianus, son of the emperor M.O. Macrinus, born on 14 or 19 September 208 AD (Cass. Dio 78,34,2; SHA Diad. 5,5). At the beginning of 217 he was given the title of clarissimus puer (CIL XV 7505), shortly afterwards he was also princeps iuventutis and nobilissimus Caesar (Cass. Dio 78,17,1; 19,1; Herodian. 5,4,12; Aur. Vict. Caes. 22,1; AE 1953,54; 1954,8; 1960,36; RIC IV, 2,22). In May 218, after the beginning of the mutiny of troops in Raphanaea in Syria, Macrinus made him Au…

Hostilianus

(140 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valens H. Messius Quintus was the younger son of emperor  Decius [II 1] and Herennia Etruscilla. In September AD 250, he was named Caesar and Princeps Iuventutis (AE 1942/43, 55; ILS 518) and, after the death of his father in June 251, adopted by  Trebonianus Gallus and raised to Augustus (Zos. 1,25,1; RIC 4,3, 143ff.), probably to distract from the complicity of Trebonianus in the deaths of his father and brother. Shortly after, he died in Rome of the plague (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30,1; [Aur. Vict.] epit. Ca…
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