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Cragaleus

(126 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κραγαλεύς). Son of  Dryops in the land of Dryope. C., who is wise and just, is chosen by  Apollo,  Artemis, and  Hercules to act as arbitrator in their dispute about the Epirote city  Ambracia. Apollo demands the city for himself because his son rules the land of Dryope. Artemis demands it because she had liberated the city from a tyrant, and Hercules because he defeated the Celts, the Thesproteans and the Epiroteans. C. awards the city to Hercules and in return is changed into a…

Cillas

(72 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κίλλας; Kíllas, also Kíllos, Κίλλος). C., who according to the Troezenian legend is called Sphaerus, is the charioteer of  Pelops (Paus. 5,10,7; schol. Eur. Or. 990). On the way to a chariot race with Oenomaus, Cillas falls into the sea at Lesbos and drowns. Pelops erects a memorial to him, a temple of Apollo Killaios and founds the town of Cilla (Theopompus 339 FHG 1). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Lycabas

(199 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λυκάβας; Lykábas). [German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates, exiled for murder. The pirates promise the boy Dionysus to take him to the island of Naxos, but intend to abduct him. Their leader Acoetes [1] refuses to support the plan because he recognizes a god in the boy, but L. strikes him down. For their heinous deeds, Dionysus transforms the whole crew into dolphins, apart from Acoetes, whom he spares (Ov. Met. 3,623ff.; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] On of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs who sexually assault th…

Marmax

(45 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρμαξ; Mármax). Suitor of Hippodamia [1], and the first to be killed by Oenomaus (Hes. fr. 259a). His horses Parthenia and Eripha are buried together with M. M. was also called Mermnes (schol. Pind. O. 1,127b) or Mermnon. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Lamache

(41 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λαμάχη; Lamáchē). Lemnian woman who conceives Leucophanes with the Argonaut Euphemus. From Leucophanes is descended Battus [1], who founds the city of Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 455b; [1]). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) Bibliography 1 L. Malten, Kyrene, 1911, 192.

Oeagrus

(86 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Οἴαγρος/ Oíagros). Father of the singer Orpheus (Pind. fr. 128c,11f.; Pl. Symp. 179d; Diod. Sic. 3,65,6; 4,25,2 etc.). The Muse Calliope [1] is usually said to be the mother of Orpheus (Apollod. 1,14; Apoll. Rhod. 1,23ff. with schol.); variants are Polyhymnia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. l.c.) and Cleio. O's homeland was Thracia, where Orpheus has also been localized. The parents of O. were Methone and Pierus (Charax FHG 3 fr. 20) or Charops [2], to whom Dionysus gave Thracia (Diod. 3,65). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Loxias

(117 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λοξίας; Loxías). Epiclesis of the god Apollo (Pind. Pyth. 3,28; Pind. Isthm. 7,49; Hdt. 1,91; 4,163; Aesch. Sept. 618; Soph. OT 853). It is striking that the combination Apollo L. does not occur; the reference to Apollo as a Delphian oracle god, however, is clear (cf. l.c.). If the name L. is derived from loxós ‘bent’, ‘crooked’, then it refers to Apollo's dark and confusing oracles (Lucian. Iupp. trag. 28; Plut. Mor. 511b). According to the schol. to Callimachus, Apollo is named L. because he is said to have been brought up by Lox…

Pelanos

(150 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (πελανός; pelanós), a more or less liquid gruel or dough, which could also contain honey, oil, poppies, milk or wine, was thrown in the fire as a sacrificial offering and burnt or poured out (cf. Aesch. Pers. 203f.; Eur. Ion 226f.; 705-707). According to Theophrastus (in Porph. De abstinentia 2,29) pelanos assumed increasingly refined forms in the course of its historical development. The dough was finally mixed and baked into flat bread, cakes or pancakes. P elanos itself, however, was never eaten. It was particularly common as a sacrificial offering  in…

Lacinius

(129 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λακίνιος, Λακῖνος; Lakínios, Lakînos). Iapygian king who ruled over the land of the Bruttii; eponym of the Lacinium Mountains near Croton. L. took in Croton, who had been banished from Corcyra, and gave him his daughter Laure (or Laurete) in marriage (schol. Lycoph. 1007; schol. Theoc. 4,33b). When Heracles [1] returned from his Geryon adventure, he came into conflict with L. Concerning the cause of this, there are two variant accounts: either L. refused hospitality to Heracles, c…

Cyanippus

(181 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κυάνιππος, ‘Black horse’). [German version] [1] King of Argus King of Argus, son of Aegialeus and of Comaetho, descendant of Bias (Paus. 2,18,4; 30,10). According to Apollodor (1,103), C. is the son of  Adrastus [1] and brother of  Aegialeus [1]. Pausanias confuses his family tree: he speaks about four generations and five rulers but does not include C. among these, as the rulers cannot be called Nēleídai until Talaus (whose mother is a daughter of Neleus). Pausanias includes Diomedes as C.'s guardian as he assumes rule for C. who was a minor [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2…

Celeutor

(76 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κελεύτωρ; Keleútōr). C. and his brothers snatch the rulership from their uncle  Oeneus, king of Aetolia, and lock him up; they make their father  Agrius [1] king, until Diomedes frees his grandfather Oeneus and kills all of Agrius' sons except for two who are able to flee. Since Oeneus is too old, Diomedes hands over the rulership to Oeneus' son-in-law  Andraemon [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2; Hyg. Fab. 175). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Ceteii

(56 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κήτειοι; Kḗteioi). Warriors of  Eurypylus [2] (Hom. Od. 11,521; Str. 13,1,69f.), whose origin is in Mysian Theutrania in western Asia Minor (schol. Hom. loc. cit.). The name C. is interpreted variously: either as ‘the Great ones’ or as derived from the river Ceteius (Hsch. s.v. K.; Str. loc. cit.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laodocus

(334 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαόδοκος, Λαοδόκος, Λεώδοκος; Laódokos, Laodókos, Leṓdokos, ‘Who receives the People’). [German version] [1] Son of Apollo and Phthia Son of Apollo and Phthia, offers hospitality to Aetolus, who fled to them in the country of the Curetes; Aetolus slays L. along with his brothers Dorus and Polypoetes and renames the country ‘Aetolia’ (Apollod. 1,57). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Participant in the campaign of the Argonauts Son of Bias [1] and Pero; native of Argos; together with his brothers Talaus and Arius he takes part in the campaign of the…

Macedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μακεδών; Makedṓn). Tribal hero and eponym of the Macedonians. There are several genealogies: [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Thyia Son of Zeus and Thyia (the daughter of Deucalion), brother of Magnes [1] (Hes. fr. 7). His wife is Oreithyia, his sons are, among others, Europus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐρωπός), Pierus, Amathus: also eponyms for Macedonian cities (schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Aeolus Son of Aeolus, the son of Hellen and brother of Dorus and Xuthus; thus M. links his people with the Hellenic genealogies (S…

Nycteus

(155 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νυκτεύς/ Nukteús). Son of Hyrieus and the nymph Clonia, and hence, through his father, the grandson of Poseidon (Apollod. 3,111). Alternatively, Hyginus says he is the son of Poseidon and Celaeno [1] (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,21). N. and his brother Lycus [6] fled from Hyria to Thebes after killing Phlegyas. In Thebes, N. was king and guardian of his grandson Labdacus, whom Polydorus fathered with N.'s daughter Nycteis (Paus. 2,6,2). When N.'s second daughter, Antiope [1], was impregnated by Zeus and fled to Sicyon and married its king, Epopeus, N. commi…

Oxylus

(215 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Ὄξυλος; Óxylos). [German version] [1] Son of Ares and Protogenia Son of Ares and Protogenia (Apollod. 1,59). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Aetolian, King of Elis Aetolian, King of Elis. The Heraclidae who according to an oracular utterance were searching for a three-eyed ( trióphthalmos) leader, found him in O. who encountered them while he was riding on a horse (mule) and, because he had lost an eye through being shot with an arrow, was actually three-eyed (together with the animal). He was on the return journey from a yea…

Lycopeus

(71 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λυκωπεύς; Lykōpeús). Son of the Aetolian hero Agrius [1] who, together with his brothers, dethrones his uncle Oeneus in Calydon in favour of his father. As a result, L., together with his brothers - with the exception of two of them -, is killed by Diomedes [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2) or by Tydeus (Diod. Sic. 4,65,2), and Agrius is dethroned (Hyg. Fab. 242). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Cocalus

(119 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κώκαλος; Kṓkalos; Lat. Cocalus). Mythical king, who took over control of Sicily after the destruction of the  Cyclopes (Just. Epit. 4,2,2). He allowed  Daedalus [1], who was fleeing from the Cretan king  Minos, into the city  Camicus (in Paus. 7,4,6 Inykos), as also Minos who was pursuing him; the latter, however, he then had killed in a shower of hot water (schol. Hom. Il. 2,145; Apollod. [see authors/works] 1,14f.) that his daughters poured down on him through the bathroom ceili…

Nessus

(212 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νέσσος/ Néssos, Νέσος/ Nésos). Centaur, son of Ixion and Nephele [2] (= Nubes), who, after the war of the Lapiths (Lapithae) and the centaurs, flees to the river Euenus (= Lycormas), where he works as a ferryman (Apollod. 2,86). When Heracles [1] and his wife Deianira want to cross the river, N. helps Deianira, carrying her across the water, while Heracles walks or swims (Ov. Met. 9,101ff.) to the other side. In the middle of the river, N. wants to rape Deianira. Heracles shoots N. …

Laelaps

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαῖλαψ/ Laîlaps, ‘hurricane’). [German version] [1] Dog of Cephalus The dog of Cephalus, inescapable because of its swiftness. L. is turned to stone during the chase (Ov. Met. 7,771ff.; Hyg. Fab. 189; Serv. Aen. 6,445). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Dog of Actaeon Dog of Actaeon that, together with the rest of a pack of hounds, attacks and kills his master who has been transformed into a stag by Artemis (Ov. Met. 3,211; Hyg. Fab. 181). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
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