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(452 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χίλων; Chílōn). [German version] [1] Spartan politician, 6th cent. BC From Sparta; son of Damagetus; owing to his leading role in the politics of Sparta (ephor c. 556 BC), in the middle of the 6th cent. he became first ephor (Sosicrates FHG IV 502 [1]); also ascribed to him was the strengthening of the ephorate in relation to the kings (Diog. Laert. 1,68). Owing to his elegiac poetry and his wisdom he was counted among the ‘Seven Sages’ of archaic Greece (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diog. Laert. 1,68-73). Rylands papyrus 18 (= FGrH …


(714 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Σωτάδης/ Sōtádes). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (4th cent. BC), explicitly referred to as such by Athenaeus and the Suda [1. test. 1.2]. Athenaeus quotes 35 verses from the play Ἐγκλειόμεναι/ Enkleiómenai (or -οι/- oi; 'The Incarcerated') in which a cook speaks at length about his skill of preparing fish (fr. 1). Furthermore, two verses from the Παραλυτρούμενος ( Paralytroúmenos, 'The Redeemed Prisoner'; fr. 3) were transmitted by Athenaeus (fr. 4) and in a commentary on Job five verses from an u…


(649 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Εὐφρόνιος; Euphrónios). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Writer of Old Comedy who in 458 BC won the Great  Dionysia [1. test. 1. 2]. Neither titles nor fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 293. [German version] [2] Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period, c. 520-500 BC Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period who is considered like  Phintias and  Euthymides to belong to the group of ‘pioneers’ who helped red-figure vase painting achieve its breakthrough. E. wor…


(861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σώφρων/ Sṓphrōn). [German version] [1] Poet, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC from Syracuse. According to Suda σ 893, approximately contemporaneous with (Arta)Xerxes in Persia and Euripides in Athens, i.e. from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. This is in keeping with the traditional belief that his son Xenarchus composed a mime that referred to a historical event occurring in 394 or 389 BC (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). S. became famous for his mimoi, quasi-dramatic dialogues or monologues in a kind of rhythmic prose that depicted everyday characters for humorous purposes t…


(546 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Φιλιστίων; Philistíōn). [German version] [1] P. of Locri Greek physician, 4th cent. BC Physician from Locri in Italy, active around 364 BC. He is said by Plato's 2nd letter to have been the personal physician of Dionysius [2] II at Syracuse in that year. However, a fragment of the comic poet Epicrates [4] (Ath. 2,59c) has been plausibly interpreted to mean that he arrived at Athens soon after this. He wrote about dietetics, pharmacology and surgery. The Anonymus Londiniensis (20,25ff. = fragment 4 Wellmann)…

Herodas, Herondas

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(originally probably Ἡρώιδας ( Hērṓidas), later Ἡρώδας ( Hērṓdas); Ἡρώνδας ( Hērṓndas) only in Ath. 3,86b). [German version] A. On the person The Hellenistic author wrote dramatic verse sketches in the choliambic metre ( Metre). He lived, according to contemporary allusions in his poems, in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC and was a contemporary of  Theocritus and  Callimachus (1,30: ‘twin temple’ of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his sister Arsinoë [II 3]; 1,31: Museion in Alexandria; 4,23-26: the sons of Praxiteles; 4…


(737 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ζηνόβιος/ Zēnóbios). [German version] [1] General of Mithridates [6] VI, 1st cent. BC General of Mithridates [6] VI in the first of the Mithridatic Wars (89-85 BC). He captured Chios in 86 BC and organized, despite the payment of the imposed fine of 2,000 talents, deportation of the entire population to the Black Sea (App. Mithr. 180-187; Colchis: Ath. 6,266), in order to warn other cities against secession (cf. Syll.3 785, lines 13-15). During a subsequent stay in Ephesus (still in 86: [1. 172 f.]), however, he was killed by the citizens, who feared a simila…


(227 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χαρῖνος; Charînos). [German version] [1] Enemy of Megara, 5th cent. BC In 433/32 BC, in accordance with the wishes of Pericles, proposed a statute of eternal hatred and active enmity towards Megara, owing to the murder of a herald (Plut. Pericles 30,3; Mor. 812C-D; PA 15434). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Develin 101 P. M. Fraser, E. Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek personal names, vol. 2, 1994, 475, no. 4. [German version] [2] Athenian, c. 340 BC Athenian friendly towards Macedonia, c. 340 BC (Dem. Or. 58,37f.; Din. 1,63; PA 15437). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography…


(100 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Δεικηλίκται; Deikēlíktai). According to Ath. 14,621d-f a Laconic term for players in the simple street theatre, who acted out farcical scenes such as ‘Fruit-Thief’ or ‘The Foreign Doctor’ (= μίμοι, μιμολόγοι). Despite variable spellings (δικηλισταί, δεικελισταί, δεικηλικταί), the Suda as well as MSS derive the word deikeliktai from δίκηλον, δείκελον ( díkēlon, deíkelon) ‘imitation’, ‘presentation’ [cf. 1]. The anecdote in Plutarch ( Apophthegmata Laconica 212ef Plut. apophth. Lac. 212ef; cf. Agesilaus 21Plut. Agesilaus 21) demonstrates the inferior…


(2,861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Benz, Lore (Kiel)
(μῖμος/ mîmos, lat. mimus). I. Greek [German version] A. General remarks Mimos signifies in the first place the actor in the popular theatre, then the play itself in which he - alone or with a small number of others - portrays human types by word and gesture (cf. μιμέομαι , miméomai: imitate) in for the most part comic or coarse scenes. Relying on the Aristotelian concept of mimesis, Diomedes gives the definition (GL I p. 491): Μῖμός ἐστιν μίμησις βίου τά τε συγκεχωρημένα καὶ ἀσυγχώρητα περιέχων, ‘Mimos is an imitation of life encompassing what is allowed and what is forbidden’. Mimoi performe…


(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…


(738 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Ἀνδοκίδης Λεωγόρου Κυδαθηναιεύς; Andokídēs Leōgórou Kydathēnaieús). [German version] A. Person The Attic orator A. was born 440 BC as member of an old aristocratic family [1. 27-32], which boasted that they were descended from Hermes (Hellanicus in Plut. Alcibiades 21,201-202b, vita 1). Already before 415 BC A. belonged to a hetairia of similarly-minded people, whom, according to Plut. Themistocles 32,128e, he sought to incite against the Democrats in a text, Πρὸς τοὺς Ἑταίρους ( Pròs toùs Hetaírous). Should it be the case that the fourth speech ‘Against Alcibiades’ i…


(4,505 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. The Greek hymnos [German version] A. Cult hymns Although Greek hýmnos (ὕμνος) in the early stage generally means ‘song’, with an epic song or Pindaric  epinikion being equally called ‘hymn’, the specification of the term as ‘song for a god’ is found at the latest in the 5th/4th cents. BC (Pl. Resp. 10,607a: ὕμνους θεοῖς καὶ ἐγκώμια τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς: ‘Hymns for gods and praise for outstanding people’; Pl. Leg. 700b 1-2: εὐχαὶ πρὸς θεούς, ὄνομα δὲ ὕμνοι ἐπεκαλοῦντο) [1]. Hymnos becomes the general term for ‘religious song’, to which belong forms of song allocated to individual…

Contest of Homer and Hesiod

(785 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Αγὼν Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου/ Agṑn Homḗru kaì Hēsiódou, Latin Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi). The ‘Contest of Homer and Hesiod’ (CHH), which is only related in one MS (Cod. Laurentianus Graecus 56,1), is part of the ancient anecdotal-biographical tradition surrounding famous poets and thinkers (cf.  Biography). This work, a compilation of prose and hexameter verse, was written during or shortly after the reign of emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138) (presumably during the  Second Sophistic) since the author…


(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Homeric Hymns

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Genre and presentation The term Homeric Hymns (HH) refers to thirty-three poems in dactylic hexameters, which have been preserved together with the hymns of  Callimachus [3], the Orphic hymns ( Orphism), and the hymns of  Proclus [2], and are addressed to single Olympic deities or to a group of Olympic deities acting as a unity (text: [1; 2; 4; 8]). The length of the hymns addressed to  Apollo (H. Hom. 3),  Hermes (H. Hom. 4) and  Aphrodite (H. Hom. 6) is comparable to that of an individual book of Homer ( c. 300-500 verses;  Homer [1]), the others are shorter, somet…


(1,707 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(πῦρ; pŷr, Lat. ignis). [German version] A. Production In practical life the Greeks had already been using fire since Homeric times for cooking, smithing, sacrificing, firing ceramics, for cremation, heating, lighting, as a signal, as a weapon, for cleaning and for extracting ore. People rubbed sticks (πυρεῖα/ pyreîa, Theophr. De igne 64 Coutant) against each other or hit appropriate stones in order to ignite a fire, and as a source of fire, they kept a permanently burning oil lamp or a glowing  narthex staff (Hes. Theog. 567). Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Greek M…

Herodas, Herondas

(1,353 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(urspr. wohl Ἡρώιδας, später Ἡρώδας; Ἡρώνδας nur bei Athen. 3,86b). [English version] A. Zur Person Der hell. Dichter verfaßte dramatische Vers-Skizzen im choliambischen Versmaß (Metrik). Er lebte nach zeitgenössischen Anspielungen in seinen Gedichten in der 1. H. des 3. Jh. v.Chr. und war Zeitgenosse von Theokritos und Kallimachos (1,30: “Zwillingstempel” von Ptolemaios II. Philadelphos und seiner Schwester Arsinoë [II 3]; 1,31: Museion in Alexandreia; 4,23-26: die Söhne des Praxiteles; 4,76-78: Apelles; 2,16…


(225 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χαρῖνος). [English version] [1] Gegner Megaras, 5. Jh. v.Chr. Beantragte 433/32 v.Chr. im Sinne des Perikles ein Gesetz zu ewigem Haß und tätiger Feindschaft gegen Megara wegen Ermordung eines Herolds (Plut. Perikles 30,3; mor. 812C-D; PA 15434). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Develin 101  P.M. Fraser, E. Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek personal names, Bd. 2, 1994, 475, Nr. 4. [English version] [2] Athener, ca. 340 v.Chr. Makedonenfreundlicher Athener, ca. 340 v.Chr. (Demosth. or. 58,37f.; Deinarch. 1,63; PA 15437). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography P.M. Fra…

Hymnos, Hymnus

(3,970 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
I. Der griechische Hymnos [English version] A. Kulthymnen Obgleich griech. hýmnos (ὕμνος) im frühen Stadium allg. “Gesang” bedeutet, wobei ein ep. Lied oder pindarisches Epinikion gleichermaßen als “H.” bezeichnet werden kann, zeichnet sich spätestens im 5./4. Jh. v.Chr. die für uns relevante Begriffsspezifizierung als “Gesang für einen Gott” ab (Plat. rep. 10,607a: ὕμνους θεοῖς καὶ ἐγκώμια τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς: ‘Hymnen für Götter und Lobpreisungen für hervorragende Menschen’; Plat. leg. 700b 1-2: εὐχαὶ πρὸς θεού…
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