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Cento

(1,376 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
[English version] A. Definition Griech. κέντρων und lat. cento - das sprachgesch. Verhältnis der Wörter ist umstritten [20. 11-13] - haben bei sonst nicht ganz deckungsgleichen Bedeutungsfeldern gemeinsam, daß sie eine aus Resten gebrauchten Stoffes zusammengenähte Decke bezeichnen, bzw. dann übertragen einen Text, der möglichst nur aus disparaten Versteilen (bis zu eineinhalb Versen) bekannter Dichter zu einem neuen kontinuierlichen Aussagezusammenhang verbunden ist; ein “Flickgedicht”; so die ausführ…

Apophthegma

(430 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[English version] A. Definition Gr. ἀπόφθεγμα, lat. facete dictum, auch sententia, der in einer bestimmten, oft schwierigen Situation treffend, meist kurz, manchmal rätselhaft formulierte Ausspruch - so schon bei den frühesten überlieferten A.en des Theramenes (Xen. hell. 2,3,56), Anaxagoras (Aristot. metaph. 1009b 26), Pittakos (Aristot. rhet. 1389a 14-16), Stesichoros (Aristot. rhet. 1395a 1-2) -, der Anspruch auf Authentizität erhebt. Dadurch unterscheidet sich das A. von den verwandten Formen der Chrie, des Aphorismos und der (begrifflich weiteren) Gnome. Gärtner, Ha…

Markianos

(614 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Μαρκιανός). Geograph aus Herakleia [7] zw. 200 (er benutzt den Geographen Protagoras) und 530 n.Chr. (er wird von Steph. Byz. häufig zitiert), evtl. nach 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) oder noch näher an Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Nachrichten über seine Person sind nicht vorhanden. Von seiner Epitomḗ der elf Bücher der Geōgraphía des Artemidoros [3] von Ephesos sind nur 21 Zitate bei Steph. Byz. und eines als Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1, 574-576) überl., ausführlichere Exzerpte dagegen aus seinem ‘Periplus des äußer…

Akrostichon

(672 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[English version] A. Definition Gr. ἀκροστιχίς (Dion. Hal. ant. 4,62,6), ἀκροστίχιον (or. Sib. 11, 17 u. 23) und plur. τὰ ἀκρόστιχα (als Überschrift: Anth. Pal. 9,385). An der Spitze aufeinander folgender Verse bzw. Zeilen (ὁ στίχος, der Vers, die Prosazeile) oder Strophen stehende Buchstaben, Silben oder Wörter, die einen sinnvollen Zusammenhang ergeben. Von dieser Besonderheit her nannte man auch das ganze Gedicht A. Wenn eine senkrechte Buchstabenreihe, u. a. durch Abstand hervorgehoben, das A. b…

Palindrom

(255 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[English version] Man bezeichnet in der Lit.-wiss. mit P. nach griech. παλίνδρομος ( palíndromos, “rückläufig”) eine Buchstabenfolge - ein Wort, einen Satz bzw. Vers ( versus supinus, recurrens; [2. 278f.] zu Mart. 2,86,1-2; vgl. Sidon. epist. 9,14,4-6) -, die auch rückwärts gelesen denselben oder einen anderen Sinn, u.U. auch denselben oder einen anderen Vers ergibt. Ein P. in strengem Sinne entspricht sich von seiner jeweiligen Mitte an spiegelbildlich. So kannte man in der Spätant. den “Krebsvers” (καρκίνος oder καρκινωτόν) [4. 133]. Überl. sind solche P. in der Anthologia Pl…

Anagnostikoi

(215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Ἀναγνωστικοί). Aristoteles erwähnt (rhet. 3,1413b 12-14) die Dichter Chairemon und Likymnios als ἀναγνωστικοί, “zum Vorlesen geeignet”. Er weist rhet. 3,1413b 2-1414a 28 der vom Streit bestimmten Ausdrucksweise, deren unausgefeilter Stil am stärksten der schauspielerischen Darstellung bedarf (ἀγωνιστικὴ δὲ ἡ ὑποκριτικωτάτη, 3,1413b 9), die Gerichts- und die Volksrede, bes. letztere mit ihrem großen Publikum, zu (3,1414a8-17). Dagegen ordnet er der von der Schriftlichkeit bestimm…

Nymphodoros

(165 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Νυμφόδωρος). [English version] [1] griech. Reiseschriftsteller aus Syrakusai, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Reiseschriftsteller aus Syrakusai, verfaßte gegen E. des 3. Jh.v.Chr. eher zur Unterhaltung Períploi Asías (und Eurṓpēs?) - darin die Gesch. vom Sklavenführer Drimakos (FGrH 572 F 4) - und wohl gesondert Perí tōn en Sikilíai thaumazoménōn (‘Wunderbares auf Sicilia). Paradoxographoi; Periplus Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography A. Giannini (ed.), Paradoxographorum Graecorum reliquiae, 1966, 112-115  Ders., Studi sulla paradossografia greca, Teil 2, in…

Palindrome

(274 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] In literary theory a palindrome, corresponding to παλίνδρομος ( palíndromos, 'running backwards'), denotes a sequence of letters - a word, sentence or verse ( versus supinus, recurrens; [2. 278f.] on Mart. 2,86,1-2; cf. Sid. Epist. 9,14,4-6) - that can also be read backwards with the same or a different sense, occasionally resulting also in the same or a different verse. A palindrome in the strict sense corresponds to itself mirror-wise from the middle outwards. Thus in Late Antiquity 'crab verse' (καρκίνος/ karkínos or καρκινωτόν/ karkinōtón) was a familiar for…

Xenagoras

(338 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ξεναγόρας/ Xenagóras). [German version] [1] Greek historian and geographer, probably in the 3rd cent. BC Greek historian and geographer probably in the 3rd cent. BC (X. FGrH 240), mentioned by Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,72,5 after Callias [10] [1. 912 f.]. It is unclear whether he was identical to X. from Heraclea [7], the father of Nymphis [1. 913; 2. 1410 f.]. He wrote a chronicle that included Egypt (F 1) and the west, esp. Sicily (F 12; 14; 15; 17; 18), probably Italy i.e. Rome as well (if F 29 is a part of the chronicle) in at least 4 bks. (title: Χρόνοι/ Chrónoi , FGrH 240 F 1). It cove…

Mandrobulus

(87 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μανδρόβουλος; Mandróboulos). The theophoric name is derived from ‘Mandrus, a - deduced - god of Asia Minor. A drama by Cleophon and a dialogue by Speusippus are named after M. The proverb ἐπὶ τὰ Μανδροβούλου χωρεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα was already no longer understood in antiquity; the ancient Paroimiographoi offered conjectures with regard to its explanation - as in Suda ε 2659, 2716 - presuming that it related to turns for the worse. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Mandroboulos, RE 14, 1039f.

Acrostich

(733 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀκροστιχίς ( akrostichís; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,6), ἀκροστίχιον ( akrostíchion; Or. Sib. 11, 17 and 23) and plur. τὰ ἀκρόστιχα ( tà akrósticha; as a heading: Anth. Pal. 9,385). Letters, syllables or words that start consecutive verses or especially lines of verse (ὁ στίχος, ho stíchos; verse, lines of prose), or strophes and form a meaningful connection. As a result of this feature the whole poem also came to be known as acrostich. If a vertical row of letters, highlighted i. a. by spacing, formed the acrostich, this was termed παραστιχίς ( parastichí…

Guido

(231 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] Latin author, identified as G. Pisanus ([4], a different view in [6]); c. 1119 he wrote an encyclopaedic compilation De variis historiis (‘On various historical matters’) in 6 books. For the sections Geographica and Descriptio totius maris he excerpted the  Geographus Ravennas, following him very closely. In the Geographica he copied the latter's personal reference to Ravenna as his hometown (Geographica 20,20), but apart from that, as evidence of his education, he displays his knowledge of Classical writers and historians, as …

Araspes

(83 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀράσπας; Aráspas). Distinguished Median (βασιλέως Χαράσπου on a coin [1]), in Xenophon's Cyropaedia (5,1,1-20; 6,1,31-44; 3,14-20 ; cf. Plut. De prof. in virt. 15, Mor. 84 f.; De curios. 13, Mor. 521 et al) one of the model figures; a faithful, reliable friend of Cyrus, even if he became infatuated with Pantheia, the wife of king Abradates, when she was entrusted to him. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, s. v. A., RE 3, 381 2 W. Knauth, S. Nadjmabadi, Das altiranische Fürstenideal, 1975.

Anecdote

(403 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Today one understands an anecdote to be a short oral story, often with one punch line, also including some humorous words, and which has a claim to be factually representative of some specific aspect of personalities or political-social circumstances [3. 641]. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Antiquity Initially, ἀνέκδοτος ( anékdotos) was the technical designation for unpublished texts (Diod. Sic. 1,4,6; Cic. Att. 14,17,6; Clem. Al. Strom. 1,1,14; Synesius, Ep. 154a Garzya). Certainly Cicero (Att. …

Paraklausithyron

(390 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (παρακλαυσίθυρον/ paraklausíthyron, 'lament at the door <by a lover>'). The Greek word has been handed down in Plutarch's Erōtikós (Plut. Mor. 753a/b); he mentions it in a sequence with a komos (Komast cups) at the door of a beloved, the decoration of her image, and an athletic battle with rivals (cf. Pl. Symp. 183a). Paraklausithyra, which centre on the situation of the spurned lover as one locked out ( exclusus amator) and group the other statements around it, are not found in this form in Greek literature until the Hellenistic period [4]. Its com…

Nymphodorus

(192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Νυμφόδωρος; Nymphódōros). [German version] [1] Greek author of travel literature from Syracusai, 3rd cent. BC Greek author of travel literature from Syracusae. Towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC, he wrote - presumably as entertainment - Períploi Asías (and Eurṓpēs?) which includes the story of the slave leader Drimacus (FGrH 572 F 4), and, probably separately, Perì tôn en Sikilíai thaumazoménōn (‘Wonders of Sicily). Paradoxographoi; Periplus Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography A. Giannini (ed.), Paradoxographorum Graecorum reliquiae, 1966, 112-115  Id., Studi su…

Apophthegma

(466 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀπόφθεγμα ( apóphthegma), Latin facete dictum, also sententia: with reference to a certain situation, often a difficult one, these have a claim to authenticity; they are usually short, often enigmatically formulated expressions -- as already in the earliest apophthegms that have survived from Theramenes (Xen. Hell. 2,3,56), Anaxagoras (Aristot. Metaph. 1009b 26), Pittacus (Aristot. Rh. 1389a 14-16), Stesichorus (Aristot. Rh. 1395a 1-2). In this way the apophthegma differs from the related   chreia , the  aphorism …

Megaclo

(84 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μεγακλώ; Megaklṓ). Daughter of the Lesbian king Macar. In a rationalistic interpretation, the Lesbian local historian Myrsilus of Methymna represents her (FGrH 477 F 7, cf. Arnob. 3,37) as the founder of the seven Lesbian Muses: she taught seven slave women to celebrate the deeds of ancient times with lyres, thus softening the grudge the king held against his wife. In gratitude, M. erected bronze statues in their honour in a sanctuary and instituted cult worship. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)

Prooemium

(1,192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Concept Greek προοίμιον/ prooímion, (tragedy:) φροίμιον/ phroímion, Latin prooemium, prohoemium: 1) hymn to the gods (as an opening), 2) introductory section of a poem, 3) beginning of a speech, 4) introduction. As was already realized in Antiquity [8. 19], prooímion is etymologically related to οἴμη ( oímē, ‘song’, ‘story’, Hom. Od. 8,74; 8,481; 22,347) and οἶμος ( oȋmos, ‘stripe’, Hom. Il. 11,24; ‘path’ = ‘song’, H. Hom. 4,451 [4. s. v. οἴμη]). Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] II. Greek literature 1) In Greek poetry, the so-called Homeric Hymns

Ustica

(115 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Οὐστίκα/ Oustíka; also modern Ústica). Small (8·6 km2, 239 m high) originally volcanic island off the northwestern coast of Sicily (Plin. HN 3,92; Ptol. 3,4,17), 57 km to the north of Panormus [3] in the Mare Tyrrhenum, probably identical to the νῆσος Ὀστεώδης/ nêsos Osteṓdēs counted among the Aeoli insulae in Diod. Sic. 5,11,1 (cf. Mela 2,7,120). Archaeological excavations in the area of I Faraglioni (Colombaia): a prehistoric settlement of the middle Bronze Age and graves with Phoenician or Carthaginian grave goods; also m…
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