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Pausistratus

(177 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίστρατος; Pausístratos). P. from Rhodes, admiral energetically active in the second of the Macedonian Wars and in the Syrian War on the side of Rome. His and allied land troops fought the Macedonian general Deinocrates in Caria in 197 BC (Liv. 33,18,1-21). In 191/190 he was active off the Ionian coast, where in 190 his fleet suffered a ruinous defeat at Panormus in Samia at the hands of Polyxenidas and he was killed himself (Liv. 36,45,5f.; 37,9,5; 37,10,2-11,11; 37,12,8; App. Syr. 23,112-24,120: Pausímachos) [1. 153f.; 2. 196]. A strategem of P.'s during …

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut. Mor. 250f-253f; Just. Epit. 26,1,4-10) [1. 403-404, 713]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…

Pleuratus

(299 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πλευράτος/ Pleurátos). [German version] [1] Illyrian king c. 200 BC Illyrian king, son of Scerdilaedas and from 212 (?) BC his co-regent [1. 256]; nephew of Agron [3]. He ensured his autocracy over the southern Illyrian tribes from 206 onwards by means of an alliance with Rome in the first (Pol. 10,41,4; Liv. 26,24,9; 27,30,13; 28,5,7; 29,12,14) [2. 298-302] and the second of the Macedonian Wars (Pol. 21,11,7; 21,21,3; Liv. 31,28,1f) [2. 302-306], for which in 196 he received the cities of Lychnis (moder…

Lycortas

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λυκόρτας; Lykórtas) of Megalopolis, son of Thearidas (Syll.3 626), father of the historian Polybius, leading statesman of the Achaeans in c. 190-168 BC: in 192 hípparchos (Liv. 35,29,1), in 184 and 182 stratēgós, who in 182 brought Messenia and Sparta back into the league (Pol. 2,40,2-6; 22,9f.; 12,8; 23,16f.) [1. 124]. Like Philopoemen, L. was an exponent of limited resistance to Rome's imposition of its will, and he defended Achaean autonomy in Rome (in 189), before Roman envoys in Greece (in 185/4) and befo…

Volux

(68 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Bocchus [1]. In 106 BC in the Romans' war with his brother-in-law Iugurtha, he took L.Cornelius [I 90] Sulla to Bocchus, who thereby indicated his change of sides. The dramatic description of this risky mission in Sallustius [II 3] (Sall. Iug. 101,5; 105-107), which shows V. as an unreliable cowardly 'barbarian', can probably be traced to Sulla's memoirs. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Aristaenus

(106 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Megalopolis, exponent of the extremely pro-Roman party in the Achaean Confederation and opponent of  Philopoemen (Pol. 24,11-13; Plut. Phlp. 17,4-5 [1. 109-115]; strategos of the federation in 198/7, 195 and 186/5 BC; initiated in 198 in Sicyon the decisive changeover to the Romans (Pol. 18,13,8-10; Liv. 32,19,5-23,3) [1. 40-45] and persuaded in 197 the Boeotians to form an alliance with the Romans (Liv. 33,2,4). A. agitated in 195 against the Aetolians and Nabis (Liv. 34,34,24), in 186 against th…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent of Rome (Pol. 20,9,2; Liv. 35,48,10-13; Plut. Titus 23,6) [1. 116] he changed to the Macedonian side in 169 during the 3rd Macedonian War, attempted to win  Strat…

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Cycliadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κυκλιάδας; Kykliádas). Strategos of the Achaean League in 209 and 200 BC, as an exponent of the Macedon-friendly faction, he supported  Philippus V in 209 against Elis (Liv. 27,31,10), but adroitly rejected his offer of help against  Nabis in 200 (Liv. 31,25,3; 9f.; [1. 165-168]). Banished after the change toward Rome (Liv. 32,19,2; [2. 40f.]), C. was at the disposal of the king as an envoy to T.  Quinctius Flamininus in Nicaea (198) (Pol. 18,1,2; Liv. 32,32,10) and after the defeat of Cynoscephalae (197) (Pol. 18,34,4). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 …

Theaedetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεαίδητος; Theaídētos) from Rhodes, father of Astymedes [1. 1552], significant moderately Rome-friendly statesman [2. 185, 188]; in the peace treaty of Apamea [2] (Antiochus [5] III) with Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso in 189 BC he and Philophron had achieved i.a. the apportionment of Lycia (Lycii) to Rhodes (Pol. 22,5,2; [1. 85; 3. 182]). T. was about 80 years old when he travelled to Rome as naúarchos in the spring of 167 to effect a new alliance, but died there (Pol. 30,5,1-10; 30,21 f.; Liv. 45,25,7-10; [1. 139, 155-158; 4. 200-202]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) B…

Moericus

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] In 212 BC, Iberian commander of the Carthaginians in Syracusae, which was being besieged by M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus. It fell by reason of M.' treachery at the section of wall he was guarding in the assault on the Achradina, allowing the Romans to also conquer the island part of the city, Orthygia (= Nassus) with the royal stronghold (Liv. 25,30). M. did have to take part in Marcellus's ovatio in gold chains, but was then rewarded with Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily (Liv. 26,21,10; 12). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Seibert, Hannibal, 1993, 315…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their participation in the assassination of Aristodemus [6] ( c. 253) and in the overthrow of Nicocles [4] of Sicyon in league with Aratus [2] (Pol. 10,22,2f.; …

Sufetes

(140 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Punic sptm = 'judge'; Latin sufetes). Highest-ranking functionaries of the civil administration in Punic and probably also in Libyan and Sardo-Punic cities [1. 461, 467 note 7, 470, 473 note 58]. From at least the 6th cent. BC, sufetes are also attested in Carthage [1. 458-460; 2. 69 note 10], where (instead of the usual two) there is occasionally evidence of four sufetes. In addition to certain religious duties, it fell to the sufetes to control judicial and financial affairs and pre…

Lasthenes

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Cretan mercenary leader, 2nd cent. BC Cretan mercenary leader, from 147 BC onwards influential adviser at the court of Demetrius [8] II ( syngenḗs, patḗr; Court titles B.3.); possibly stratēgós of Coele Syria (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,86; 126f.; 1 M…

Demotikon

(201 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern word formation to describe a name component of a full Greek citizen: apart from the person's name (e.g., Δημοσθένης/ Dēmosthénēs) and the father's name (genitive, e.g., Δημοσθένους/ Dēmosthénous), the demotikon indicates origin from a   dḗmos [2], a local unit of a   pólis (e.g., Paianieús, ‘from the deme Paeania’) and was primarily used in epigraphic contexts, i.e. in texts directed at the public. In Attica the demotikon became customary after the political elevation of the dḗmoi by  Cleisthenes [2] and obligatory after the reorganization of democr…
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