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Syrakusai

(3,916 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel | Günther, Linda-Marie; Günther, Linda-Marie; Toral-Niehoff, Isabel
(Συράκουσαι, lat. Syracusae). Syrakus, Stadt an der SO-Küste von Sicilia, h. Siracusa. [English version] I. Topographie 734/3 v. Chr. gegr. Kolonie (Kolonisation) von Korinthos. Der ON soll sich von dem auch Συράκω/ Syrákō genannten Sumpfgebiet Lysimeleia ableiten (vgl. Skymn. 280-282), das sich westl. der Festlandzunge, die wie die gegenüberliegende Insel Ortygia die erste Brückenkopfsiedlung (besiedelt seit dem frühen Paläolithikum) bildete, bis ins 20. Jh. erh. hat. Für die vieldiskutierte histor. Top. von S. ist es von Be…

Theophiliscus

(44 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεοφιλίσκος; Theophilískos). Rhodean admiral, who won a victory for a Rhodean-Pergamene alliance against Philippus [7] V at Chios in 201 BC, in which he was mortally wounded (Pol. 16,2-9; [1. 118-120]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984.

Lycortas

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λυκόρτας; Lykórtas) of Megalopolis, son of Thearidas (Syll.3 626), father of the historian Polybius, leading statesman of the Achaeans in c. 190-168 BC: in 192 hípparchos (Liv. 35,29,1), in 184 and 182 stratēgós, who in 182 brought Messenia and Sparta back into the league (Pol. 2,40,2-6; 22,9f.; 12,8; 23,16f.) [1. 124]. Like Philopoemen, L. was an exponent of limited resistance to Rome's imposition of its will, and he defended Achaean autonomy in Rome (in 189), before Roman envoys in Greece (in 185/4) and befo…

Pantauchus

(207 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πάνταυχος; Pántauchos). [German version] [1] Macedonian military commander (early 3rd cent. BC) A Macedonian (from Beroea?) [1. 423], commander and probably 'friend of the king' ( phílos) of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. In 289 BC, P. was defeated in a courageous single combat with Pyrrhus during a battle in Aetolia (Plut. Pyrrhus 7,4-9; Plut. Demetrius 41,3) [2. 224f]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Friend of Perseus [2] Son of Balacrus of Beroea, probably the grandson of P. [1] [1. 423], high-ranking 'king's friend' of Perseus [2] [3. 115…

Lydiadas

(204 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυδιάδας; Lydiádas). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megalopolis, 3rd cent. BC Son of Eudamus from Caphyae (?, cf. Syll.3 504) [1. 401] or from Megalopolis; as tyrant of the latter, L. joined the city in 235 BC to the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map) (Pol. 2,44,5; Plut. Aratus 30; [1. 158; 3. 71f.; 87]), he served as its stratēgós in 234/3, 232/1 and again in 230/229. L.'s rivalry with Aratus [2] escalated when Argus joined the League under Aristomachus [4]; in the war against Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta, which L. pursued vigourously, he died in the …

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander of Hannibal, end of 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian, son of a Himilkon, as Hannibal's [4] commander in his absence he led the siege of Saguntum in 219 BC (Liv. 21,12,1-3); identical…

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' entourage that they had him murdered with the acquiescence of Flamininus and help from  Alexamenus (Pol. 18,43; Liv. 33,27,8-28,3) [1. 54-57]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bib…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent of Rome (Pol. 20,9,2; Liv. 35,48,10-13; Plut. Titus 23,6) [1. 116] he changed to the Macedonian side in 169 during the 3rd Macedonian War, attempted to win  Strat…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Myttones

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μυττόνης/ Myttónēs, Pol.; Μοττόνης/ Mottónēs, Syll.3 585,87; Muttines, Liv.). Senior Carthaginian officer of Libyo-Phoenician origin from Hippo [5], whom Hannibal [4] sent to Sicily in 212 BC to support Epicydes [2] and Hanno [9]. He fought with success there against the Romans, but in 210, after being slighted by Hanno, he betrayed Acragas to M. Valerius Laevinus (Pol. 9,22,4; Liv. 25,40,5-13; 26,21,14f.; 40,3-8; [1. 369f., 378; 2. 317f., 335]). In reward, M. won Roman citizenship as M. Valerius Mottones (Syll.3 585,86f.; Liv. 27,5,6f.) and he commanded …

Demotikon

(201 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern word formation to describe a name component of a full Greek citizen: apart from the person's name (e.g., Δημοσθένης/ Dēmosthénēs) and the father's name (genitive, e.g., Δημοσθένους/ Dēmosthénous), the demotikon indicates origin from a   dḗmos [2], a local unit of a   pólis (e.g., Paianieús, ‘from the deme Paeania’) and was primarily used in epigraphic contexts, i.e. in texts directed at the public. In Attica the demotikon became customary after the political elevation of the dḗmoi by  Cleisthenes [2] and obligatory after the reorganization of democr…

Theaedetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεαίδητος; Theaídētos) from Rhodes, father of Astymedes [1. 1552], significant moderately Rome-friendly statesman [2. 185, 188]; in the peace treaty of Apamea [2] (Antiochus [5] III) with Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso in 189 BC he and Philophron had achieved i.a. the apportionment of Lycia (Lycii) to Rhodes (Pol. 22,5,2; [1. 85; 3. 182]). T. was about 80 years old when he travelled to Rome as naúarchos in the spring of 167 to effect a new alliance, but died there (Pol. 30,5,1-10; 30,21 f.; Liv. 45,25,7-10; [1. 139, 155-158; 4. 200-202]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) B…

Ethnikon

(167 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Modern term, from ἐθνικός/ ethnikós, ‘belonging to an éthnos’; ethnic). Scholarly term in epigraphy for the designation of origin of a person mentioned outside his native polis or region. The ethnikon (cf. Str. 14,2,18) identifies affiliation with the inhabitants of a particular polis (e.g., Korínthios) or a particular region (e.g., Boiōtós, Sikeliṓtēs). The phenomenon is well attested: the ethnikon was also applied to women, citizens of destroyed or no longer existing poleis retained their ethnikon, and on occasion it designated…

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the family of  Aratus [2] (tyrant of Sicyon 264-252 BC); having come to power due to the murder of the tyrant Cleinias, he was killed by Deinias and the otherwise unknown dialectician Aristoteles (Plut. Arat. 2,2; 3,4; Paus. 2,8,2) [1. 394]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.
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