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Decius,

(91 words)

Author(s): Hahn, J.
[English Version] röm. Kaiser (um 180–251 n.Chr.); nach senatorischer Karriere wurde D. 249 an der Donau zum (Gegen-)Kaiser ausgerufen. Im Bemühen um polit. Ordnung und kultische Einheit des Imperium erließ er einen allg. Opferbefehl (supplicatio). Alle Reichsbürger mußten sich den Vollzug amtlich bestätigen lassen (libelli); die Weigerung vieler Christen löste die große Christenverfolgung (: I.) aus (Eus. h.e. VI 41,9 f.). Nach Kämpfen gegen die Goten auf dem Balkan fiel D. 251. Johannes Hahn Bibliography R.Selinger, Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers D. (EHS 03/617, 1995) A.…

Licinius

(129 words)

Author(s): Hahn, J.
[English Version] Licinius, röm. Kaiser 308–324 n.Chr. (Valerius Licinianus L.; um 250 Dakien – 325 Thessalonike), Bauernsohn, Freund und Stabsoffizier des Galerius, daraufhin 308 von Diokletian zum Augustus des Westens erhoben. Ab 311 in die tetrarchischen Machtkämpfe verwickelt, nahm L. eine christenfreundliche Haltung ein (sog. Mailänder Toleranzedikt, Februar 313). Nach wechselvollen Kämpfen Herrscher über den Osten unterlag er 324 Konstantin, wurde verbannt und 325 hingerichtet. Die L. unterstellte christenfeindliche Politik ist konstantinische Propaganda. Joh…

Eudokia

(101 words)

Author(s): Hahn, J.
[English Version] (urspr. Athenais; gest.20.10.460), aus Athen, hochgebildete Tochter des heidnischen Rhetoriklehrers Leontios, wurde am 7.6.421 mit Theodosius II. verheiratet, zuvor getauft und Aelia E. benannt. Fromm und mit wachsendem Einfluß auf ihren Mann, seit 423 Augusta, pilgerte sie 438 nach Jerusalem. Mit dem Sturz ihres Vertrauten Kyros 441 verlor sie an Einfluß und ging erneut nach Jerusalem, wo sie bis zu ihrem Tod als Asketin lebte und den Bau von Kirchen und Stadtmauern förderte. Nach 451 unterstützte sie die Monophysiten, wandte sich 455 aber der Orthodoxie zu. Joh…

Domitilla

(74 words)

Author(s): Hahn, J.
[English Version] Domitilla, Flavia, Enkelin Kaiser Vespasians. Zus. mit ihrem Mann, T.Flavius Clemens (Konsul 95 n.Chr.) wurde sie 95 n.Chr. wegen Ungläubigkeit von Kaiser Domitian, ihrem Onkel, angeklagt und verbannt (Suet. Dom. 15,1; Eus. h.e. III 18,4). Sie stiftete eine Begräbnisstätte (späteres Coemeterium D. an der Via Ardeatina). Unsicher ist, ob sie Christin (so Eus. aaO.) oder Jüdin war. S.a. Exegese: VII., Abb.1. Johannes Hahn Bibliography M.Sordi, The Christians and the Roman Empire, 1994, 44–47.

Maxentius

(140 words)

Author(s): Hahn, J.
[English Version] Maxentius, röm. Kaiser 306–312 (Marcus Valerius M.; 279 - -28.10.312), Sohn des Maximianus. 305 von der Thronfolge ausgeschlossen, putschte M. 306 in Rom, stellte wenig später die Christenverfolgungen (: I.) ein, überwarf sich 307 mit seinem reaktivierten Vater und verband sich mit Konstantin gegen Galerius; Mitte 310 Bruch mit Konstantin. Die 311 von Galerius den Christen gewährte bedingte Religionsfreiheit überbot M. Er unterlag nach der Invasion Italiens durch Konstantin diesem in der Schlacht an der Milvischen Brücke und ertrank im Tiber. Johannes Hahn B…

Gaza

(645 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, C. | Hahn, J.
[English Version] I. Vorhellenistische Zeit G. gilt als bedeutendste Stadt im Südwesten Palästinas mit großem, fruchtbarem Einzugsgebiet an der Straße von Ägypten nach Syrien, Endpunkt der Weihrauchstraße von Arabien zum Mittelmeer. Seit der 2. Hälfte des 2.Jt. v.Chr. fast kontinuierlich besiedelt. Die Gesch. von G. begann nach Ausweis ihres Namens (kanaan. ‘azzat, hebr. ‘azzāh, »Starke, Befestigte«) gegen Ende der MB-Zeit mit Gründung einer Festung, die Tuthmosis III. 1468 v.Chr. (TGI 3 15) eroberte. Bis um 1130 diente G. als äg. Garnison (Relief Sethos' I. […

III. Conclusions (108)

(2,069 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Chapter sections   1. Constitutional Limitations as Criteria of International Controls pp. 292   2. Constitutional Limitations as Restraints on the International Personality of the European Organisations pp. 294   3. Constitutional Limitations as a Means for Ensuring the Rule of Law pp. 297 Hahn, Hugo…

II. A system of constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (108)

(31,442 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Chapter sections   1. Institutional Limitations in the Field pp. 212   2. Functional Limitations safeguarding the Exercise of Sovereign Powers 241 by the Member States pp. 241   3. Substantive Limitations resulting from pp. 273 Hahn, Hugo J.

I. Introduction (108)

(6,095 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Chapter sections   1. Definition of Terms pp. 195   2. Classification of Constitutional Limitations in the Law of the European 205-210 Organisations safeguarding pp. 205 Hahn, Hugo J.

Matière préliminaire (108)

(871 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Chapter sections   Biographical note pp. 191   Principal publications pp. 192   Abbreviations pp. 193 Hahn, Hugo J.

Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108)

(223 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 This course contains the following chapters: Matière préliminaire pp. 189-194 I. Introduction pp. 195-210 II. A system of constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations pp. 211-291 III. Conclusions pp. 292-298 Bibliography pp. 299-304 Table of contents pp. 305-306 Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 ISBN: 9789028614529 © 2014 by Hague Academy of Internati…

Bibliography (108)

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Hahn, Hugo J.

Table of contents (108)

(595 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Hugo J.
This chapter is part of: Constitutional limitations in the law of the European organisations (Volume 108) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 108) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 108 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1963 Hahn, Hugo J.

V. Conclusion – New Trends in International Economic Law?

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 22 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment in Market Economy Countries Completed Spring 1987 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich 98. “ Oldv. “ newinternational economic order? – (1) The “neo-liberal” economic world order was established toward the end of the Second World War and in the first postwar years. At the same time, a worldwide economic and currency system was created by GATT and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Since this immediate postwar period changes have taken place …

II. Essential Features of Present-Day World Commerce

(4,528 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 21 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment – General Observations Completed in March 1986 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Historical Outline1 6. The true beginnings of state control of foreign commerce lie in mercantilism. It is the economic complement to the modem territory-based state mainly developed in Western Europe after the 14th century, which is characterized by the idea of a deliberate direction also of foreign commerce operations in order to produce the greatest possib…

I. Scope and Sources

(10,520 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 22 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment in Market Economy Countries Completed Spring 1987 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Basic Concepts 1. Fundamental principles. – Legal rules governing border-crossing, foreign commerce relations exist in all types of states regardless of the specific form of social organization and governmental structure.1 As soon as a politically organized community interacts with the rest of the world, it engages in economic relationships with aliens. In the era of the United Nati…

IV. Foreign Investment

(22,048 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 22 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment in Market Economy Countries Completed Spring 1987 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Legal Issues of International Investments i. The Concept of International Investment 62. Economic and legal definitions of investments. – The legal term investment (investissement, Investition) did not appear, at least in the international context, until after the Second World War. That term has replaced, also due to the international economic changes, the older expressions foreign property and foreign assets.1…

II. Legal Bases of Foreign Commerce Law

(5,035 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 22 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment in Market Economy Countries Completed Spring 1987 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Special Features of (Foreign) Economic Law i. Fundamental Structural Problems 14. The relationship between government and society. – The term economic law as a category for the body of law which covers state regulation and manipulation of the market is a relatively new term.1 The economic principles of mercantilism had already attempted, however, to integrate theoretical conceptions about economi…

III. Specific Issues Concerning Foreign Commerce

(25,697 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 22 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment in Market Economy Countries Completed Spring 1987 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Basic Rules of International Commerce 23. Preliminary remark. – Before discussing the forms of governmental regulation of border-crossing commerce in s. 32–46, we shall now concentrate on certain functional principles of the international law of commerce. They provide the framework for interventions in international transactions.1 24. NondiscriminationBasis and scope. – Certainly the most abstract pr…

III. Legal Bases of National Laws on Foreign Commerce

(14,299 words)

Author(s): Hugo J. Hahn | Ludwich Gramlich
Volume XVII: State and Economy | Chapter 21 (1989): Foreign Commerce and Investment – General Observations Completed in March 1986 Hugo J. Hahn and Ludwich Gramlich A. Public International Law 11. Public international law setting. – The reciprocal connections between public international law and domestic law in the field of foreign commerce are exceedingly intimate and complex. To begin with, every provision of a state’s law on foreign commerce is based upon the international law principle of territorial sovereignty, which endows every state with the …
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