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(151 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[English Version] von Ephesus (um 130 – nach 195), vertrat als Bf. von Ephesus und mutmaßlicher Sprecher einer kleinasiatischen Synode bei den Passa-/Osterterminstreitigkeiten Ende des 2.Jh. die Praxis der Quartodezimaner. Er verteidigt sie in einem Brief an Bf. Victor I. von Rom (Frgm. bei Eus.h.e. III 31,3; V 24,2–8) mit Hilfe eines Traditionsarguments, bei dem er in Kleinasien begrabene »große Sterne« aufzählt, sieben bfl. Verwandte erwähnt und zugleich röm. Hegemonieansprüche zurückweist. These…

Polycrates of Ephesus

(171 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] (c. 130–after 195). As bishop of Ephesus and probable spokesman for a synod in Asia Minor, Polycrates supported the practice of the Quartodecimans during the controversies over the date of Easter (Paschal/Easter calendrical controversies) at the end of the 2nd century. He defended them in a letter to Bishop Victor I of Rome (frgms. in Eus. Hist. eccl. III 31.3; V 24.2–8), arguing on the basis of tradition; he lists the “great stars” buried in Asia Minor, mentions seven bishops related to him, and rejects Roman claims to hegemony. Theori…

Carpocrates and Carpocratians

(294 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] The origins of the Christian Gnostic community (Gnosis/Gnosticism: II, 2) of the Carpocratians reach back before 150 ce. According to Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. III 5.2f.), it was founded by Epiphanes son of Carpocrates, who died at the age of 17 and was allegedly venerated as a god in Same on the island of Cephallenia. In his work De iustitia (CPG 1123), Epiphanes understood justice as an original equality of all, polemicized against the lawgiver, and advocated a community of goods and women (Clem. Strom. III 5.1–11. 2). According to the teaching of th…


(69 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] A mainstream church designation for “heretics,” and especially for 2nd century Gnostics who effected a reassessment of the OT and venerated Cain as well as Judas Iscariot (use of the “Gospel of Judas” [ NTApo I, 61990, 309f.]; Iren. Haer. I 31.1f.; Ps.-Tert., Adversus omnes haereses 2.5f.; Epiph. Haer. 38). Roman Hanig Bibliography …


(308 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman