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Carpocrates and Carpocratians

(294 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] The origins of the Christian Gnostic community (Gnosis/Gnosticism: II, 2) of the Carpocratians reach back before 150 ce. According to Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. III 5.2f.), it was founded by Epiphanes son of Carpocrates, who died at the age of 17 and was allegedly venerated as a god in Same on the island of Cephallenia. In his work De iustitia (CPG 1123), Epiphanes understood justice as an original equality of all, polemicized against the lawgiver, and advocated a community of goods and women (Clem. Strom. III 5.1–11. 2). According to the teaching of th…

Cainites

(69 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] A mainstream church designation for “heretics,” and especially for 2nd century Gnostics who effected a reassessment of the OT and venerated Cain as well as Judas Iscariot (use of the “Gospel of Judas” [ NTApo I, 61990, 309f.]; Iren. Haer. I 31.1f.; Ps.-Tert., Adversus omnes haereses 2.5f.; Epiph. Haer. 38). Roman Hanig Bibliography Sources: W. Foerster, ed., Die Gnosis: Zeugnisse der Kirchenväter, 1995, 57–59 (Ger. trans.)

Cerinthus

(308 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] (Gk Kerinthos) was a Christian teacher in Asia Minor c. 100 ce (although the Apocryphal Epistle of James [uncertain], the Epistle to the Apostles, Hippolytus's Capita contra Gaium, and other sources place him in the early apostolic period). He was possibly opposed by the Johannine school (Irenaeus, Haer. III 3.4: anecdotal encounter with John at one of the public baths; III, 11.1: the Gospel of John allegedly directed against Cerinthus; Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. III 28.1, etc.). Descriptions of Cerinthus's writings appearing in this context are not…

Polycrates of Ephesus

(171 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[German Version] (c. 130–after 195). As bishop of Ephesus and probable spokesman for a synod in Asia Minor, Polycrates supported the practice of the Quartodecimans during the controversies over the date of Easter (Paschal/Easter calendrical controversies) at the end of the 2nd century. He defended them in a letter to Bishop Victor I of Rome (frgms. in Eus. Hist. eccl. III 31.3; V 24.2–8), arguing on the basis of tradition; he lists the “great stars” buried in Asia Minor, mentions seven bishops related to him, and rejects Roman claims to hegemony. Theori…

Polykrates

(151 words)

Author(s): Hanig, Roman
[English Version] von Ephesus (um 130 – nach 195), vertrat als Bf. von Ephesus und mutmaßlicher Sprecher einer kleinasiatischen Synode bei den Passa-/Osterterminstreitigkeiten Ende des 2.Jh. die Praxis der Quartodezimaner. Er verteidigt sie in einem Brief an Bf. Victor I. von Rom (Frgm. bei Eus.h.e. III 31,3; V 24,2–8) mit Hilfe eines Traditionsarguments, bei dem er in Kleinasien begrabene »große Sterne« aufzählt, sieben bfl. Verwandte erwähnt und zugleich röm. Hegemonieansprüche zurückweist. These…