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Faith and Knowledge

(3,085 words)

Author(s): Ernst-Dieter Hehl
Christianity was Europe's dominant high religion in the Middle Ages. The Muslims were increasingly driven back from the southern peripheries, where they had established culturally impressive political…
Date: 2016-10-18

Peace of God

(301 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[German Version] A Peace of God ( Pax Dei) was an ecclesiastical decree intended to protect churches and monasteries as well as non-combatants together with their means of subsistence from attack. A Peace of God was first decreed in the 10th century in southern France, whence the idea spread northwards into the German Empire, wracked by the Investiture Controversy, into Italy, and into northern Spain. It was usually put in place by a synod and was directed primarily against a rabble of armed men; the bi…


(88 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[English Version] von Aguilers (gest. nach 1100), war Kanoniker in Le Puy (Frankreich) und nahm als Kaplan des Grafen Raimund IV. von St-Gilles am Ersten Kreuzzug teil. Darüber berichtete er, orientiert an dessen Person, in seinem »Liber« (Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, vor 1105) und betonte den rel. Hintergrund: Visionen, Reliquienfunde, Eingreifen Gottes und der Heiligen. Ernst-Dieter Hehl Bibliography Le »Liber« de Raymond d'Aguilers, hg. von J.H. Hill/L.L. Hill, 1969 J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, 1986.


(277 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[English Version] von Augsburg (890 Augsburg? – 4.7.973 Augsburg). Die Kenntnis über U.s Leben fließt aus seiner zw. 982 und 993 entstandenen Vita. Einer adeligen Familie entstammend und in St. Gallen erzogen, wurde U. Kämmerer des Augsburger Bf. Adalpero (gest.909), zog sich aber aus der Umgebung von dessen Nachfolger zurück. 923 übertrug König Heinrich I. U. das Bistum Augsburg. Als Helfer Ottos I., des Großen, bewährte sich U., als er 953/54 diesem bei dem Aufstand des Königssohnes Liudolf die T…

Raymond of Aguilers

(92 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[German Version] (died after 1100), a canon in Le Puy (France) and he took part in the first Crusade as chaplain to Duke Raymond IV of St-Gilles. In his Liber ( Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, before 1105), he wrote about the Crusade and especially about the duke, stressing the religious background: visions, discoveries of relics, and the intervention of God and the saints. Ernst-Dieter Hehl Bibliography Le “Liber” de Raymond d’Aguilers, ed. J.H. Hill & L.L. Hill, 1969 J. Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, 1986.

Ulrich of Augsburg

(310 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter
[German Version] (890, Augsburg? – Jul 4, 973, Augsburg). Our knowledge of Ulrich’s life derives from a vita composed between 982 and 993. Born to a noble family and educated in Sankt Gallen, he became chamberlain to Adalpero (died 909), the bishop of Augsburg, but withdrew from the environment of his successor. In 923 King Henry I conferred the bishopric on Ulrich. As an ally of Otto the Great, he proved himself in 953/954 when he remained loyal to Otto during revolt of the king’s son Liudolf; in 955, in the da…


(4,060 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter | Düchting, Reinhard | Möhring, Hannes | Mentgen, Gerd
[German Version] I. History – II. Literature – III. From the Muslim Perspective – IV. Effects on the Jews I. History 1. Concept The Middle Ages did not develop a clear term for the crusades. The word itself is only documented at a late point. What research calls the crusades in the narrower sense of the word are the crusades which were begun at the end of the 11th century by Latin Christendom to reconquer or defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 by the Christ…