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(3,264 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Pagan Antiquity (CT) Mausoleum was originally the name of the funeral monument of Maussolus of Caria (d. 353 BC) and his wife (and sister) Artemisia (d. 351) in Lycian Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum). It consisted in an Ionic peripteros of 9 × 11 columns on a high base with a roof in the form of a stepped pyramid, bearing a quadriga with the heroicized founder pair; the architects were Pytheus and Satyrus. The work's sheer size (height ca . 50 m), the status and achievements of the participating sculptors (Scopas, Bryaxis, Leochares…

Mimesis Anecdotes

(1,962 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) Mimesis anecdotes (MA) can be understood here as stories of naturalistic paintings and sculptures and their deceptive and illusionistic effects on humans and animals. Their discourse, on a level far below the Aristotelian concept of mimesis, is based on the assumption that art is 'naturalistic' and documents the amazement of fellow human beings about the creation of art and its progress. Most MAs have been documented late (around or after the beginning of the Christian era), u…

Nudity in art

(1,926 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Although the history of nudity in art (NiA) can not be separated from its cultural history,  only the modalities of art-historical nudity related to Greek-Roman Antiquity will be discussed here. Agonal nudity (reportedly for the first time: Orsippus of Megara, 15th Olympiad, ca. 720 BC, Paus. I,44,1) can be considered a prerequisite but not a sufficient reason for the cultivation of nudity in the visual arts. The circumstance that an Olymp…


(2,626 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Concept (CT) The stylistic designation 'Gothic' is founded upon the view, which arose in Italy and was primarily applied to architecture, that the Germanic Goths in the course of the folk-migration period brought to an end the 'golden age' of Classical Antiquity and imposed instead their barbaric style (see e.g. Vasari, Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori (= Lives of the Artists) I,3 [2; 16; 20]). Even after the correction of this error and the re-evaluation and new dating of what continued t…

Laocoon group

(2,908 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Discovery and Display (CT) More than almost any other work of art the Laocoon group (LG) has left an indelible mark on the history of art and intellectual history of the European modern age. It was found on 14 January 1506 in Rome, in a buried vaulted chamber at S. Pietro in Vincoli (anonymous letter to G. S. L'Arienti, 31 January 1506 [28. 26 f.]). Seeking further information, Pope Julius II sent to the site of the find his architect, Giuliano da Sangallo, who (accompanied by Michelangel…


(1,029 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Middle Ages (CT) Both Greek and Roman art is rich in erotic themes and objects of all kinds.  They are found in a multitude of genres and modes of expression, from large-scale sculpture, painting and mosaics to craft products and finally small art objects (e.g. gems and cameos). When the triumph of Christianity brought an end to the eroticism of ancient art, the world of erotic imagery also disappeared from the light of day. Objects of this kind were, of cou…

Cnidian Aphrodite

(1,525 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
[English version] The Cnidian Aphrodite (CA) was sculpted by Praxiteles about 340 BC for the temple of Aphrodite Euploia in Cnidus. She was said to be the first and also the most perfect sculpture of a completely naked goddess and woman. According to Pliny the Elder, it was the world's most famous marble sculpture, turning Cnidus into an important tourist destination (HN 36,20). The fame of this larger than life late-Classical statue is also reflected in numerous references and epigrams [3], as we…

Equestrian statues

(2,435 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Middle Ages (CT) The history of the reception of the ancient Equestrian Statue (ES) begins with the bronze statue of the mounted Marcus Aurelius (erected ca. AD 173); it is the sole survivor among numerous - even bigger and more aesthetically attractive - Roman monuments of this nature, having been separated and turned into Constantine the Great as the embodiment of a Christian hero. Since the statue was clearly respected - even in the darkest times of Late…

Venus de Milo

(1,480 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
[English version] This statue of Aphrodite, known as the Venus de Milo (VM), became an icon of bourgeois society on account of its unusual beauty. In contrast to her prominent 'sisters', who were for the most part already known to the Renaissance, its reception history has been, to be sure, brief but all the more spectacular. Found in 1820 on the island of Melos, it came into the possession of the French crown and hence to the Louvre as a work of Praxiteles [8]. As if in compensation for the recently lost Napoleonic plunder, above all the much admired Medici Venus, it soon became the centrepie…

Torso (Belvedere)

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Since the Renaissance the word 'torso' (Italian for 'trunk', also tronco; from Greek thýrsos) refers to an ancient statue in fragmentary condition due to damages it sustained, usually lacking its head and limbs. More recently the term has also been used for sculptures of bodies intentionally left incomplete by the artist. The name comes from the fragment of a larger-than-life sculpture of a nude male, widely known as the 'Belvedere Torso' (BT) because of its location in the Cortile del Bel…

Knidische Aphrodite

(1,283 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel) RWG
[English version] Die K. A. wurde gegen 340 v. Chr. von Praxiteles für den Tempel der Aphrodite Euploia in Knidos geschaffen. Sie galt als das erste und zugleich vollkommenste Standbild einer gänzlich nackten Göttin und Frau: Laut Plinius d. Älteren die berühmteste Marmorskulptur der Welt, um derentwillen Knidos ein bedeutendes touristisches Ziel war (nat. 36,20). Vom Ruhm der spätklass., überlebensgroßen Statue zeugen ferner zahlreiche Erwähnungen und Epigramme [3], sowie der Umstand, das am meis…


(889 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel) RWG
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel) RWG [English version] A. Mittelalter (RWG) Sowohl die griech. wie die röm. Kunst ist reich an erotischen Themen und Gegenständen aller Art: Man findet sie in zahlreichen Gattungen und Techniken, von Großplastik, Malerei, Mosaik über kunsthandwerkliche Produkte bis hin zu Kleinkunst (z.B. Gemmen und Kameen). Als mit dem Sieg des Christentums das E. der ant. Kunst anbrach, verschwand auch die erotische Bildwelt vom Tageslicht. Geeignete Werke wurden offenbar von Kennern während des …


(2,155 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel) RWG
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel) RWG [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Dem Stilbegriff G. liegt die in It. aufgekommene, v. a. auf die Baukunst gemünzte Ansicht zugrunde, daß die german. Goten im Verlauf der Völkerwanderung dem “goldenen Zeitalter” der Ant. das E. bereitet und ihren barbarischen Stil etabliert hätten (u. a. Vasari, Vite ..., I,3) [2; 15; 18]. Auch nach Berichtigung dieses Irrtums und der Umwertung und Umdatierung der (dem Namen nach weiter bestehenden) G. seit der Romantik blieb ihr der evidente…

Trajan's Column

(2,914 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) | Bourdon, Nicola
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) Bourdon, Nicola [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) Trajan's Column (TC) was the first of the imperial columns in the city of Rome, which raised the statues of the emperors aloft while their deeds were celebrated in a relief frieze that spiraled up to the top [7; 11]. It was followed by columns for Antoninus Pius (161; destroyed, pedestal: Rome, Vatican Museum) and Marcus Aurelius (192), as well as columns in Constantinople for Theodosius (393) and Arcadius (421, both either destroyed or broken up). TC (originally executed in colour), located on the eno…


(10,894 words)

Author(s): Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) | Hinz, Manfred (Passau RWG) | Burmeister, Karl Heinz (Bregenz RWG) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Kreyszig, Walter (Saskatoon/Wien RWG)
Hinz, Berthold (Kassel RWG) I. Renaissance (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Renaissance Humanism (RH) is understood as a literary and philological movement which first established itself with Petrarch in the courts and city oligarchies of Italy (and to a lesser extent in the universities).  Its objective was to imitate and restore Classical Latin (essentially Cicero's for prose and Vergil's for metric texts), in view of a newly arisen, non-clerical, urban bourgeois educated class for both production…