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RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN

(2,994 words)

Author(s): Jawid Mojaddedi
(d. 1273), Persian poet and Sufi philosopher RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN viii. Rumi's Teachings Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Balḵi Rumi’s (q.v.; d. 672/1273) magnum opus is his didactic poem, the Maṯnawi (q.v.), and his main prose work is the Fihe mā fihe, which was compiled from the notes of students at his teaching circle. These works, which represent the last two decades of his life, constitute the most substantial sources for his teachings without need for recourse to his many biographies. We do not have sources dating from his young adulthood…
Date: 2017-08-14

KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Hojviri

(1,876 words)

Author(s): Jawid Mojaddedi
the only surviving work of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. ʿOṯmān Hojviri (d. between 1073 and 1077) and the oldest surviving independent manual of Sufism written in Persian. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 664-666 KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB (“Unveiling the hidden”) , the only surviving work of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. ʿOṯmān Hojviri (d. between 465/1073 and 469/1077) and the oldest surviving independent manual of Sufism written in Persian, following within a couple of decades of Abu Ebrāhim Esmāʿil b. Moḥammad Mostamali’s (d. 1042) Šarḥ al-taʿarrof le-maḏhab al-taṣaw…
Date: 2012-11-08

ḤALLĀJ, ABU'L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN

(3,018 words)

Author(s): Jawid Mojaddedi
b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi (857-922), popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-point in the history of Islamic mysticism. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 589-592 ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi, popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-p…
Date: 2016-05-11

Shaqīq al-Balkhī

(775 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Abū ʿAlī Shaqīq b. Ibrāhīm al-Azdī al-Balkhī (d. 194/810) was a renunciant, a student of the frontier ascetic Ibrāhīm b. Adham (d. c.165/782), and the teacher of Ḥātim al-Aṣamm (d. 237/851–2). His nisba associates him with the region of Balkh, in northern Khurāsān, where he lived his life (the nisba is the part of a Muslim name that originally indicated a tribal or geographic origin and, later, often referred to a special characteristic or profession). Little is known about the details of his life, but he was considered by early Ṣūfīs one of t…
Date: 2021-07-19

Bisṭāmī, Bāyazīd

(1,463 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr b. ʿĪsā b. Surūshān al-Bisṭāmī (al-Basṭāmī) (d. 261/874–5 or 234/848–9), commonly known in the Iranian world as Bāyazīd Bisṭāmī, was an early ecstatic Ṣūfī from north-central Iran. His grandfather Surūshān was born a Zoroastrian, -an indication that al-Bisṭāmī had Persian origins despite the fact that his transmitted sayings are in Arabic. Very little is known about the life of al-Bisṭāmī, whose importance lies in his biographical tradition, since he left no written works. The often inconsistent ear…
Date: 2021-07-19

Abū Turāb al-Nakhshabī

(592 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Abū Turāb al-Nakhshabī ʿAskar b. Ḥusayn (or Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn) (d. 245/859) was a wandering ascetic. His nisba (the final word of a person's name relating that individual to a place, tribe or clan, or to another individual, etc.) implies that his origins were from Nakhshab near Bukhara, but he is usually described more vaguely as “[o]ne of the Ṣūfīs from Khurāsān.” Abū Turāb is reported to have spent much of his life travelling across the deserts of the Middle East, as far west as Syria and as far south as the …
Date: 2021-07-19

Annihilation and abiding in God

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Annihilation and abiding in God, fanāʾ wa-baqāʾ in Arabic, are two terms used to describe the final stages of the mystical path of the Ṣūfīs. Cognates of both terms are found in the Qurʾānic passage “Everyone that is thereon is passing away (fānin), but the face of your Lord, the Possessor of majesty and generosity, remains (yabqā)” (Q 55:26–7), but this does not relate immediately to their usage in Ṣūfī discourse. In addition to constituting a pair of opposites, they are, more significantly, considered to be sequential experiences. Annihilation in God (fanāʾ fī llāh) is followed by abi…
Date: 2021-07-19

Dhū l-Nūn al-Miṣrī

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Dhū l-Nūn Abū l-Fayḍ Thawbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī (d. Giza, in 245/859 or 248/862) was an early mystic leader of Nubian origin, who is celebrated for his knowledge of a wide range of disciplines, including medicine and alchemy. He was most commonly known by his laqab (honorific title) Dhū l-Nūn (lit., he of the fish, i.e., Jonah), which, rather than Thawbān, may have been his given name. Dhū l-Nūn appears in the earliest accounts of Ṣūfism as the leading figure of his generation, despite coming from Akhmīm, in Upper Egypt, a region which is under-represented in …
Date: 2021-07-19

Hujvīrī, Abū l-Ḥasan

(1,585 words)

Author(s): Mojaddedi, Jawid
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān al-Jullābī Hujvīrī (year of death traditionally taken as 465/1071–2) was a Ṣūfī scholar born and raised in the Jullāb and Hujvīr suburbs of Ghazna, in present-day Afghanistan. He settled eventually in Lahore, which was, at that time, like Ghazna, a major town under Ghaznavid rule. The most reliable source about his life is his sole surviving work, the Kashf al-maḥjūb (“The revelation of the veiled”). This work suggests that, whilst he was first and foremost a Ṣūfī, he had received a traditional scholastic education and was particularly interested in Ḥanafī kalā…
Date: 2022-02-04