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Theoclymenus

(89 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεοκλύμενος; Theoklýmenos). Mythical seer from Argos, son of Polypheides and hence descendant of Melampus [1] (Hom. Od. 15,223-256). In Pylus [1] T., a fugitive for manslaughter, encounters Telemachus. The latter takes the supplicant with him to Ithaca, where initially he leaves him in the care of Piraeus (ibid. 15,256-286; 15,508-546). Later brought to the palace, T. tells Penelope that Odysseus is in the country again (ibid. 17,71-165), and foretells an imminent death for her suitors but is mocked as mad (ibid. 20,350-383). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Podargus

(53 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόδαργος/ Pódargos). Name of various mythical horses. P. is the name of a horse belonging to Hector (Hom. Il. 8,185), to Menelaus [1] ( ibid. 23,295), and of one of the man-eating horses of king Diomedes [1] of Thrace, which are killed by  Heracles [1] (Hyg. Fab. 30). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Psyche

(547 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Ψυχή; Psychḗ). [German version] [1] Lover of Amor Female protagonist in the novella Psyche et Cupido embedded in Apuleius' (Ap(p)uleius [III]) Metamorphoses (Apul. Met. 4,28-6,24). P., a royal princess, is honoured throughout the world by virtue of her extraordinary beauty as a new Venus. Thus spurned and thereby enraged, the true goddess Venus sends her son Cupid/Amor (Eros [1]) to punish P.; Cupid, however, falls in love with her. As P.'s singularity makes it impossible to find her a husband, her father consults the …

Perse(is)

(111 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πέρση/ Pérsē, Περσηίς/ Persēís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wife of Helios, mother by the latter of Circe and Aeetes (Hom. Od. 10,136-139; Hes. Theog. 356; 956f.; Apollod. Epit. 7,14). Her children are varyingly named as: Aloeus, Pasiphae, Calypso, Perses [2] (Apollod. 1,83; schol. Lycoph. 174; 798b; Cic. Nat. D. 3,48; Hyg. Praef. Fab. 36 Marshall). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet for Hecate as the daughter of Perses Epithet for Hecate as the daughter of Perses [1] (schol. and Eust. ad Hom. Od. …

Pylaea

(81 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Demeter (Πυλαία/ Pylaía, Πυλαίη/ Pylaíē). Epithet of Demeter in her sanctuary at Thermopylae, where she was worshipped together with her daughter Persephone  (Callim. Epigr. 39; schol. Hom. Il. 16,174; cf. Erotianus, Vocum Hippocraticarum Collectio, s. v. Πύλας, p. 74 Nachmanson). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia (Πύλαια/ Pýlaia). Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia in the sanctuary of Demeter Amphiktyonis at Thermopylae [1. 175]. Gate, deities associated with Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliogra…

Sthen(n)o

(39 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Σθεν(ν)ώ/ Sthen(n)ṓ, 'the strong one'). One of the three Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), immortal daughter of Phorcys [1] and Ceto (Hes. Theog. 276; Apollod. 2,39; Nonnus Dion. 40,229), also Σθείνω/ Stheínō (Schol. Hes. Theog. 276). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Tegyrius

(102 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Τεγύριος; Tegýrios). Mythical king of the Thracians. T. takes in the banished Eumolpus and his son Ismarus and gives the son his daughter in marriage. Eumolpus flees to Eleusis when an ambush he has planned against T. is revealed. After Ismarus's death, however, T. calls Eumolpus back. They are reconciled and Eumolpus takes over power from T. (Apollod. 3,202). T., eponym of the Boeotian city of Tegyra, evidently does not belong to the historical Thracian people, but to the Thracian tribes that settled in Boeotia in the prehistoric period [1]. Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibli…

Thyia, Thy(i)ades

(156 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Θυία/ Thyía, Θυῖα/ Thyîa, Θυίη/ Thyíē, plural Θυῖαι/ Thyîai; Θυ(ι)άς/ Thy(i)ás, plural Θυ(ι)άδες/ Thy(i)ádes, 'stormers'). [German version] [1] Eponymous Nymph of a Delphic sanctuary Eponymous Nymph of a small Delphic sanctuary (Hdt. 7,178), considered to be the first priestess of Dionysus in Delphi (Paus. 10,6,4). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Term for worshippers of Dionysus Primarily in the plural, a term for (female) worshippers of Dionysus, in poetry usually synonymous with Maenads or Bacchae (e.g. Soph. Ant. 1151; Apoll. Rhod. 1,…

Praxidice

(161 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Πραξιδίκη/ Praxidíkē). Greek goddess of oaths ('Executrix of Justice'), sister of  Zeus Soter and by him mother of Homonoia, Arete (who are also known as the Praxidíkai) and Ctesius (Mnaseas FHG 3, 152 fr. 17). According to Panyassis fr. 18 K Matthews, wife of Tremiles, mother of Tlos, Pinarus, Cragus. The plural Praxidíkai is also found as the byname of a threesome of goddesses (Dionysius of Chalcis FHG 4, 394 fr. 3) and the singular P. as the byname of Persephone (Orph. H. 29,5). An open-air sanctuary of the Praxidíkai was located at Haliartus in Boeotia; only care…

Pronoe

(67 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Προνόη; Pronóē). [German version] [1] Nereid One of the Nereids, according to Hes. Theog. 261. Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliography Preller/Robert 1, 556. [German version] [2] Soothsaying Lycian naiad Soothsaying Lycian naiad. After telling Caunus [1] of the death of his sister Byblis, P. takes him as her husband and transfers her realm to him. Their son is Aegialus (Conon FGrH 26 F 1,2). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Parthenope

(153 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Παρθενόπη; Parthenópē). [German version] [1] One of the three Sirens in southern Italy One of the three Sirens in southern Italy (Aristot. Mir. 103), as such probably the daughter of Achelous [2] (Sil. Pun. 12,34; Apollod. 1,18; 1,63). After P. plunged into the sea (Dionys. Per. 359), her corpse washed ashore near Naples where a monument was erected to her. This led to the development of a cult centre for P. who was honoured there with annual votive offerings (Lycoph. 717-721; Dionys. Per. 357f.). Between 440 and 430 BC annual torch races were introduced there as well (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98). J…

Tyche

(702 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Falco
(Τύχη/ Týchē, Τύχα/ Týcha). [German version] [1] Greek goddess of fate Greek goddess of fate, the personification of the abstract term tyche ('fate', 'chance'; 'fortune' - both good and bad), etymologically related to the verb τυγχάνειν/ tynchánein ('hit', 'meet with', 'be favoured with', 'happen accidentally'). The close connection between the two aspects (by what is called 'Person-Bereichdenken') often makes it very difficult in Greek literature to distinguish between the deity and the abstraction [3.35-36]. No specific myth is associated with the personified figure…

Pronoe

(63 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Προνόη). [English version] [1] Nereide Nach Hes. theog. 261 eine der Nereiden. Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliography Preller/Robert 1, 556. [English version] [2] weissagende lykische Naiade Weissagende lykische Naiade. Nachdem P. dem Kaunos [1] den Tod seiner Schwester Byblis berichtet hat, nimmt sie ihn zum Mann und überträgt ihm die Herrschaft. Beider Sohn ist Aigialos (Konon FGrH 26 F 1,2). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Praxidike

(156 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[English version] (Πραξιδίκη). Griech. Eidgöttin (“Vollstreckerin des Rechts”), Schwester des Zeus Soter, von diesem auch Mutter der Homonoia und der Arete (die auch als Praxidíkai bezeichnet werden) sowie des Ktesios (Mnaseas FHG 3, 152 fr. 17). Nach Panyassis, fr. 18 K Matthews Gattin des Tremiles, Mutter von Tlos, Pinaros, Kragos. Daneben findet sich der Pl. Praxidíkai als Beiname für eine Dreiheit von Göttinnen (Dionysios von Chalkis FHG 4, 394 fr. 3) sowie der Sg. P. als Beiname der Persephone (Orph. h. 29,5). Ein Heiligtum der Praxidíkai befand sich im boiotischen Haliarto…

Perse(is)

(109 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πέρση, Περσηίς). [English version] [1] Tochter des Okeanos und der Tethys Tochter des Okeanos und der Tethys, Gattin des Helios, von diesem Mutter der Kirke und des Aietes (Hom. Od. 10,136-139; Hes. theog. 356; 956f.; Apollod. epit. 7,14). Variierend werden als weitere Kinder genannt: Aloeus, Pasiphae, Kalypso, Perses [2] (Apollod. 1,83; schol. Lykophr. 174; 798b; Cic. nat. deor. 3,48; Hyg. praef. fab. 36 Marshall). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [English version] [2] Beiname der Hekate als Tochter des Perses Beiname der Hekate als Tochter des Perses [1] (schol. und Eust. ad Ho…

Parthenope

(133 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Παρθενόπη). [English version] [1] eine der drei Sirenen in Süditalien Eine der drei Sirenen in Süditalien (Aristot. mir. 103), als solche wohl Tochter des Acheloos [2] (Sil. 12,34; Apollod. 1,18; 1,63). Nachdem P. sich ins Meer gestürzt hat (Dion. Per. 359), wird ihr Leichnam bei Neapel angespült, wo man ihr ein Grabmal errichtet. So entsteht eine Kultstätte der P., die hier mit jährlichen Opfergaben verehrt wurde (Lykophr. 717-721; Dion. Per. 357f.). Zw. 440 und 430 v.Chr. wurden zusätzlich jährliche Fackelläufe eingeführt (Timaios FGrH 566 F 98). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) …

Pylaia

(77 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[English version] [1] Beiname der Demeter (Πυλαία, Πυλαίη). Beiname der Demeter in ihrem Heiligtum an den Thermopylai, wo sie gemeinsam mit ihrer Tochter Persephone verehrt wurde (Kall. epigr. 39; schol. Hom. Il. 16,174; vgl. Erotianos, Vocum Hippocraticarum Collectio, s. v. Πύλας, p. 74 Nachmanson). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [English version] [2] Versammlung der delphischen Amphiktyonia (Πύλαια). Versammlung der delphischen Amphiktyonia im Heiligtum der Demeter Amphiktyonis bei den Thermopylai [1. 175]. Torgötter Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliography 1 G. Roux, Delphi, 1…

Psyche

(505 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Ψυχή). [English version] [1] Geliebte des Amor Weibliche Hauptfigur der in den ‘Metamorphosen’ des Apuleius (Ap(p)uleius [III]) eingebetteten Novelle ‘Amor und Ps. (Apul. met. 4,28-6,24). Ps., eine Königstochter, wird wegen ihrer außerordentlichen Schönheit von aller Welt als eine neue Venus verehrt. Deshalb mißachtet und erzürnt, sendet die wahre Göttin Venus ihren Sohn Cupido/Amor (Eros [1]) zur Bestrafung Ps.s aus, der sich jedoch in diese verliebt. Da Ps.s Außergewöhnlichkeit es unmöglich macht, einen Gatten für si…

Podargos

(46 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[English version] (Πόδαργος). Name verschiedener myth. Pferde. P. heißt das Pferd des Hektor (Hom. Il. 8,185), das des Menelaos [1] (ebd. 23,295), sowie eines der menschenfressenden Pferde des thrakischen Königs Diomedes [1], die von Herakles [1] getötet werden (Hyg. fab. 30). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Peiraios

(40 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[English version] (Πείραιος). Sohn des Klytios, aus Ithaka, treuer Gefährte des Telemachos. P. begleitet diesen nach Pylos und nimmt den Seher Theoklymenos bei sich auf (Hom. Od. 15,539-544; 17,55 und 71-78; 20,372). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliography Preller/Robert 2, 1408.
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