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(1,249 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Külzer
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Θήρα/ Thḗra). [German version] I. Geography An island (73 km2) of the southern Cyclades with a city of the same name (Str. 10,5,1; Paus. 3,1,8), formerly Santorini (from Italian Santa Irene), now Thira, together with the smaller islands Therasia and Aspronisi a group of islands that most likely formed around 1628 BC (dendro-dating) in the wake of a powerful volcanic eruption; Palaia Kaim…


(224 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σέριφος/ Sériphos). Island of the western Cyclades (11 km in diameter, 75 km2 in area, with Mount Turlos at 486 m elevation; marble, granite, gneiss) with numerous bays and three islets (modern Bous, Piperi and Seriphopoulo). S. had been settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic idols) and the Iones took possession of it in the historical period (Hdt. 8,48). S. resisted Persian demands for tribute and in 480 BC took part on the Greek side in the battle of Salamis [1] (Hdt. 8,46; 48;…


(77 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὀρόβιαι/ Oróbiai). Coastal town north-west of Euboea, in antiquity always dependent on Histiaea, modern Rovies. Oracular centre of Apollo Selinountios. In 426 BC severely devastated by a violent earthquake and tsunami (Thuc. 3,89,2; Str. 9,2,13; 10,1,3; IG XII 9, 1186, 2; 1189,27 and 37). Natural catastrophes Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1903, 95f.  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1133f.  E. Freund, s.v. O., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 496.


(211 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίκινος; Síkinos). Island in the southern Cyclades (39 km2;  Scyl. 48;  Str. 10,5,1; Ptol. 3,15,31), rising to 552 m  (Agios Mamas), rich in marble and slate; no natural safe harbours, today also named Síkinos. Its poetic epithet Oinóē 'wine-bearing' (Apoll. Rhod. 1,620; Plin. HN 4,69; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.) indicates viticulture. Already inhabited in the 3rd mill. BC (Early Cycladic ceramics), in the historical period it was settled by Ionians. In the 5th cent. BC S. probably capitulated to the Persians (Hdt. 8,46)…


(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σύμη/ Sýmē). Island (58 km2, up to 617 m elevation, barren limestone) with many bays, surrounded by islets, off the Carian coast, 24 km to the north of Rhodes (Hom. Il. 2,671 ff.; Hdt. 1,174; Str. 14,2,14; Diod. Sic. 5,53; Ptol. 5,2,32; Plin. HN 5,133), today again called S. Few traces of prehistoric and Mycenaean settlement, settled by Cares and in c. 1000 BC by Dorieis. The polis of S. was at modern S. on the Bay of Aegialus in the northeast (remains of city wall and harbour, Athena sanctuary). From 434/3 BC on, S. was a member of t…


(274 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νίσυρος/ Nísyros). Island west of Cnidus, belonging to the Dodecanese. Around 35 km2 and pentagonal in shape, between Cos, Telos and the western tip of the Reşadiye peninsula. Volcanic rocks, hot springs (Str. 10,5,16); the collapsed main crater is 692 m high. N. was dedicated to Poseidon. The settlements of Argus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄργος/Á rgos), Gigantea and Hypaton (Γιγαντεα/ Gigantea and Υπατον/ Hypaton, IG XII 3,92,2f.), attested in literary sources, cannot be located archaeologically, but the eponymous main settlement of N. has been f…


(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Οἴνη/ Oínē, ethnikon Οἰναῖος/ Oinaîos; in literature also Οἰνόη/ Oinóē, Ath 1,30d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνόη, Str. 14,1,9). Main town on the island of Icarus [2], on its north coast, 2 km west of modern Evdilos. Cult site of Dionysus and Artemis Tauropolis (chief cult). Numerous inscriptions [1]. O. was a member of the Delian League, paying a tribute of between 4000 and 8000 drachmai (ATL 1, 360f.; 528; 2, 86f.; 3, 190; …


(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ποιήεσσα/ Poiḗessa, Ποιᾶσσα/ Poiâssa, Ποιῆσσα/ Poiêssa). City in the southwest of Ceos [1] at modern Pisses. An acropolis and remains of walls lie on a steep cape. In the area early Cycladic pottery  (3rd millennium BC) has been found. Few remains survive (foundations, columns). Temples to Apollo Smintheus and  Athena Nedousia are recorded in Str. 10,5,6. To the northeast of P. a mighty Hellenistic watchtower has been found. In the Hellenistic Period P. was incorporated into the polis…


(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκίαθος/ Skíathos). Westernmost of the northern Sporades (45 km2, length 11 km, maximum elevation 435 m; Hdt. 7,176,1; 179; 183,1 f.; 8,7,1; 92,1; Scyl. 58; Scymn. 580 ff.; Mela 2,106; Plin. HN 4,72; Ptol. 3,13,47), today also S. The island was settled in the 8th cent. BC by settlers from Chalcis [1]; Palaesciathos was laid out at that time (not located, recorded until the 5th/4th cent. BC). In the 6th/5th cents. BC, the polis of S. was founded on the east coast with a strategically imp…


(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …


(1,097 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Θάσος/ Thásos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the northern Aegean (Aegean Sea); 398 km2, up to 1203 m high, 10 km south-south-west of the mouth of the Nestus [1], separated from the Macedonian mainland by a c. 7 km wide strait, with no particularly deeply carved bays; predominantly marble with deposits of gneiss and mica schist, occasional granite (north-east, south-west); lush vegetation (includin…


(99 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τελέθριον; Teléthrion). Mountains in the north of Euboea [1], to the southeast of a line from Oreos (modern Pyrgos) to Histiaea (Str. 10,1,3 f.), modern Galitsades (predominantly slate and sandstone, up to 977 m elevation: Profitis Elias); the location of the T. at Oechalia [4] (Steph. Byz. s. v. T.) is incorrect. T was famous for its medicinal herbs (Plin. HN 25,94; Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,5,2; 9,15,4; 9,15,8; 9,20,5). A particular region of T. was called Drymós ('oak forest': Str. loc.cit.). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography K. Fiehn, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 397  Philip…

Saronikos Kolpos

(103 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σαρωνικὸς κόλπος/ Sarōnikòs kólpos, πέλαγος/ pélagos, πόντος/ póntos, or πόρος/ póros; also κόλπος Αργείας/ kólpos Argeías, Ptol. 3,16,12, or Σαλαμινιακὸν πέλαγος/ Salaminiakòn pélagos, Str. 8,2,2), modern 'Gulf of Aegina'. Named after the mythical king Saron of Troezen, a generally shallow gulf of the Aegean Sea (Paus. 2,30,7; 2,32,10, cf. 2,34,2; Str. 2,5,21) between Attica in the northeast, Argolis in the southwest and the Isthmus of Corinth in the northwest, with many islands (e.g., Aegina, Salami…


(71 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τεύτλουσσα/ Teútloussa, Τευτλοῦσσα/ Teutloûssa; Teutloessa, Τευτλόεσσα; modern Sesklion). Island on the coast of Caria (Cares). In the winter of 412/1 BC the Athenians, defeated by a Spartan fleet 1 km to the north at Syme, sought shelter there (Thuc. 8,42,4; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Plin. HN 5,133 locates T. incorrectly at Rhodes. Limited traces of settlement survive. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography G. Susini, Supplemento epigrafico, in: ASAA 41/42, 1963/1964, 203-292, here 260.


(336 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Πεπάρεθος; Pepárethos). Island of the Cyclades (today counted among the northern Sporades) off the Thessalian coast (96 km2, 20 km long, up to 8 km wide; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 3,12,44; Plin. HN 4,72), with a main town of the same name, modern Skopelos. The central range of hills, Megalovuno, with the Hypselon (688 m), runs from north west to south east. Along the west coast there are cliffs and numerous islets. According to mythology, P. was settled by the Cretans (Diod. 5,79,2; Scymn. 579ff.); the…


(345 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίφνος; Síphnos). Island in the western Cyclades (89 km2; Str. 10,5,3; Ptol. 3,15,30; Plin. HN 4,66; 36,159), rising to 696 m (Prophitis Elias), with many bays especially in the south and west; rich in slate and marble, it also produced gold, silver, iron and lead; still known as S. today. Poetic epithets: Merópē or Meropía and Acis (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.; Plin. HN 4,42). Traces of settlement from the 3rd millennium onwards; silver and galenite were mined in the early Cycladic period (early Cycladic settlement south of Apollonia, for…


(149 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Σκάνδεια/ Skándeia). Port settlement, 10 stadia to the east of the city of Cythera (Paus. 3,23,1) in the southeast of the island of Cythera, modern Kastri on the bay of Avlemonas. Settlement from the Early Helladic on; first mentioned in Hom. Il. 10,268. On a steep rock above S., there was an acropolis with a temple of Aphrodite Ourania. In 424 BC the Athenians conquered S., which had been occupied by the Spartans shortly before (Thuc. 4,…


(238 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Island (Τῆλος/ Têlos). Island to the northwest of Rhodes with deeply incised bays, 16 km in length, up to 9 km in width, 63 km2 in area, rising to 651 m in height, predominantly of slate and limestone formations with broad tuff valleys in between; originally named Agathoussa (Hesych. s. v. Ἀγάθουσσα, Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Settled in the 3rd millennium BC (settlement remains at Kastello near Livadia in the south) and in the Minoan period (17th/16th cent. BC, at Megalo Chorio in the north). Settled c. 1000 BC by the Dorieis, in the 7th cent. BC linked polit…


(136 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φολέγανδρος; Pholégandros). Island in the southern Cyclades (33 km2, 19 km long, up to 4 km wide) to the southeast of Melos (Strab. 10,5,1; 5,3; Plin. HN 4,68; Ptol. 3,15,31), named after a son of Minos (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.), today once again called P.; its highest elevation is Hagios Eleutherios (411 m). P. was settled as early as the Cretan-Mycenaean Period, later it was Doric. P. was a member of the Delian League (tribute 1000 drachmai: ATL 1,434f.; 2,83). The ancient city of P. was above modern P. on the southeastern coast (graves, marble spolia and walls from the …


(100 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νέα/ Néa, Νέαι/ Néai). Small island between Lemnos and the Hellespontus (Plin. HN 2,202), considered part of the Thermaios Kolpos in Plin. HN 4,72 and of Thracia in Anth. Pal. 15,25,25; probably not the same as the Byzantine N., modern Hagios Eustratios (30 km southeast of Lemnos), but rather submerged, apart from the meagre remains of the rocky reef of Charos east of Lemnos. Sacred to Athena. According to  Steph. Byz. s.v. Νέαι, Philoctetes was bitten by the serpent here (but acc. Paus. 8,33,4 on the submerged Chryse). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography J. Koder, Ai…
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