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Fiber plants

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Kießling, Rolf
1. General While flax and hemp were widely used for apparel from antiquity on, cotton came into use in central Europe in the High Middle Ages --initially, in the 16th century, as a component of a mixed fabric; then, from the 17th century, as pure cotton, it took its place alongside linen woven from flax. Sisal fiber derived from the Mexican agave was first imported from Yucatán in the first half of the 19th century and used in the manufacture of sacks and sails.Rolf Kießling 2. Flax Flax (Lat . linum usitatissimum) flourishes primarily in temperate climates with abundant rain. …
Date: 2019-10-14

Bannmeile

(1,017 words)

Author(s): Kießling, Rolf
The Bannmeile was an area surrounding a town or city in which trade or commerce was forbidden or regulated through local laws. As opposed to the Europe-wide concept of the staple, the Bannmeile in the German lands (and the equivalent  banlieue in France) was primarily designed to secure local supply. The institution of the  Bannmeile reached its zenith between the 15th and 17th centuries, before waning in importance as territorial mercantilism took hold. From the Late Middle Ages, Bannmeilen increasingly regulated exercise of the market right, permission to conduct…
Date: 2019-10-14

Fustian

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Kießling, Rolf
Fustian (from medieval Lat.  fustaneus/Lat. fustis, “stick,” “wood,” or Arabic  fustan, “garment”) is a blended fabric composed of linen (warp) and cotton (weft) that was produced in various patterns and grades and was generally considered a subset of woven linen. Some of the special grades of fustian in the Empire included  “Sarrock,” “Sartuch” (Cologne), and “Schürlitz” (Basel). It is difficult to distinguish fustian from bombazine, which was produced as a separate type of fabric from the 16th through t…
Date: 2019-10-14