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Deved̲j̲̇i̇

(197 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a Turkish word meaning cameleer, the name given to certain regiments of the corps of janissaries [see yeni čeri ], forming part of the D̲j̲emāʿat , and performing escort duties with the supply columns. They were also called by the Persian term

Ḏj̲emʿiyyet-i ʿIlmiyye-i ʿOt̲h̲māniyye

(372 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
the Ottoman Scientific Society, was founded in Istanbul in 1861 by Munīf Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Modelled on the Royal Society of England, and perhaps inspired by the reopening of the Institut d’Egypte [ q.v.] in Alexandria in 1859, it consisted of a group of Turkish officials, dignitaries and scholars, some of them educated in Europe. It was the third such learned society to appear in 19th century Turkey, having been preceded by the End̲j̲umen-i Dānis̲h̲ in 1851 (see and̲j̲uman ), and by the ‘learned society of Bes̲h̲iktas̲h̲’ in the time of Maḥmūd II (see D̲j̲ewdet, Taʾrīk̲h̲ 2

Tunali̊ Ḥilmī

(226 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, Turkish writer and politician. Born in Eskid̲j̲uma in 1863, he became involved in illegal political activities while still a medical student. After serving a brief term of imprisonment, he fled to Europe in 1895, and joined the Young Turk group in Geneva, where in 1896 he founded, with others, the Ottoman Revolutionary Party ( ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ Ik̲h̲tilāl Fi̊rḳasi̊ ); he was particularly effective as a writer and propagandist with a simple and direct popular appeal. In 1900, together with ʿAbd Allāh D̲j̲ewdet and Isḥāḳ Sükūtī [ qq.v.], he made his peace with the Sultan and was appoi…

Daftardār

(728 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, in Turkish defterdār , keeper of the daftar [ q.v.], an Ottoman term for the chief finance officer, corresponding to the Mustawfī [ q.v.] in t…

Duyūn-i ʿUmūmiyye

(706 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the Ottoman public debt, more particularly the debt administration set up in 1881. The Ottoman government had made its first attempts to raise money by internal loans in ¶ the late 18th and early 19th centuries (see ashām and ḳāʾime…

ʿAlids

(1,706 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, descendants of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, who had eighteen sons (according to most works on ʿAlid genealogy, but fourteen according to another version given by al-Ṭabarī and eleven according to al-Masʿūdī), and seventeen daughters. His sons were as follows: By Fāṭima; al-Ḥasan, al-Ḥusayn, and al-Muḥsin (or Muḥassin). The third does not appear in all sources. By Ḵh̲awla; Muḥammad, known as Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya. By Umm al-Banīn; ʿAbbās the elder, ʿAbd Allāh, ʿUt̲h̲mān the elder, Ḏj̲aʿfar the elder. By al-Ṣaḥbāʾ, called Umm Ḥabīb; ʿUmar. By Laylā bint Masʿūd; Abū Bakr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, ʿUbayd Allāh. By Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays; Yaḥyā, ʿAwn, Muḥammad the younger (according to al-Ṭabarī). By Umāma bint Abi’l-ʿĀṣ; Muḥammad the younger (the second, according to al-Ṭabarī). By other mothers; Ḏj̲aʿfar the younger, ʿAbbās the younger, ʿUmar the younger, ʿUt̲h̲mān the younger, Muḥammad the younger (according to Ak̲h̲ū Muḥsin, or the second, according to the

Ḥātim b. Hart̲h̲ama

(381 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the son of Hart̲h̲ama b. Aʿyan [ q.v.], held a number of appointments in the service of the Caliphs. In a letter from al-Amīn to Ṣāliḥ, dated S̲h̲awwāl 192/July-August 808, i.e., nearly a year before the death of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, the heir apparent advises his brother to confirm Ḥātim b. Hart̲h̲ama, like his father a man of proved loyalty, in his post, and to entrust him with the guarding of the Caliphal palaces (Ṭabarī, iii, 769; cf. Gabrieli, Documenti relativi al califfato di al-Amīn in aṭ-Ṭabarī

Biñbas̲h̲i̊

(326 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, ‘head of a thousand’, a Turkish military rank. The word appears at an early date among the Western Turks, and is already used in connexion with the military reorganisation said to have been made by Ork̲h̲ān in 729/1328-9 ( e.g., Saʿd al-Dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-Tawārīk̲h̲ , i, 40— ‘onbas̲h̲i̊s , yüzbas̲h̲i̊s , and biñbas̲h̲i̊s were appointed to them ...’). In the form miñbas̲h̲i̊

al-ʿAyyās̲h̲ī

(192 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, abu ’l-naṣr muḥammad b. masʿūd b. muḥammad b. ʿayyās̲h̲ , a S̲h̲īʿite writer of the 3rd/9th century. He was a native of Samarḳand, and was said to have been descended from the tribe of Tamīm. Originally a Sunnī, he was converted while still young to S̲h̲īʿism, and studied under the discipl…

ʿAyn Ḏj̲ālūt

(947 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, spring of Goliath, mentioned by the mediaeval geographers as a village between Baysān and Nābulus, in the Ḏj̲und of Filasṭīn. It stood at the head of the Wādī Ḏj̲ālūt, and is said to have owed its name to a tradition that by it David slew Goliath (cf. A. S. Marmardji, Textes géographiques arabes sur la Palestine , Paris 1951, 152; G. Le Strange, Palestine, 384, 461). In the chronicles of the Crusaders the nei…

al-Ḥaramayn

(811 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, the two holy places, usually referring to Mecca and Medina, occasional…

ʿArūs Resmi

(383 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, also resm-i ʿarūs, resm-i ʿarūsāne, ʿādet-i ʿarūsī, etc., in earlier times gerdek deg̲h̲eri and gerdek resmi; an Ottoman tax on brides. The standard rates were sixty aspers on girls and forty or thirty on widows and divorcees. There are sometimes lower rates for persons of medium and small means. In some areas the tax is assessed in kind. Non-Muslims are usually registered as paying half-rates, but occasionally…

Tafarnud̲j̲

(497 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
(a.), from Ifrand̲j̲ [ q.v.], lit. “adopting, imitating or aping the manners and customs of the Franks, i.e. the Europeans”. The term was used by the pioneer journalist Ḵh̲alīl al-Ḵh̲ūrī in his satirical novella Way id̲h̲an lastu bi-Ifrand̲j̲ī (“Alas then, I am not a European”), published in the magazine Ḥadīḳat al-Ak̲h̲bā…

Ḏj̲umhūriyya

(1,646 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, in Turkish d̲j̲ūmhūriyyet , republic, also republicanism, a term coined in Turkey in the late 18th century from the Arabic d̲j̲umhūr , meaning the crowd, mass, or generality of the people, and first used in connexion with the first French Republic. In classical Arabic, as for example in Arabic versions and discussions of Greek political writings, the usual equivalent of the Greek πολιτεία or Latin res publica, i.e., polity or commonweal, was madīna ; thus, the ‘democratic polity’ of Plato’s classification is called, by Fārābī and others, madīna d̲j̲amāʿiyya (Fārābī, Arāʾ ahl al-madī…

Di̇lsi̇z

(371 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, in Turkish tongueless, the name given to the deaf mutes employed in the inside service ¶ ( enderūn ) of the Ottoman palace, and for a while also at the Sublime Porte. They were also called by the Persian term bīzabārī , with the same meaning. They were established in the palace from the time of Meḥemmed II to the end of the Sultanate. Informati…

ʿĀs̲h̲iḳ

(282 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, an Arabic word meaning lover, frequently in the mystical sense. Among the Anatolian and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ānī Turks, from the late 9th/15th or 10th/16th century, it is used of a class of wandering poet-minstrels, who sang and recited at public gatherings. Their repertoire included religious and erotic songs, elegies and heroic narratives. At first they followed the syllabic prosody of the popular poets, but later were subjected to Persian influence, both directly and through the Persian-influenced…

Daftar

(4,995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a stitched or bound booklet, or register, more especially an account or letter-book used in administrative offices. The word derives ultimately from the Greek διφθέρα “hide”, and hence prepared hide for writing. It was already used in ancient Greek in the sense of parchment or, more generally, writing materials. In the 5th century B.C. Herodotus (v, 58) remarks that the lonians, like certain Barbarians of his own day, had formerly written on skins, and still applied the term diphthera to papyrus rolls; in the 4th Ctesias ( in Diodorus Siculus ii, 32; cf. A. Christensen, Heltedigtning og …

Čes̲h̲mīzāde

(199 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, Muṣṭafā Ras̲h̲īd , Ottoman historian and poet, one of a family of ʿulamāʾ founded by the Ḳāḍīʿasker of Rumelia, Čes̲h̲mī Meḥmed Efendi (d. 1044/1634) A grandson of the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Meḥmed Ṣāliḥ Efendi, and the son of a

Elči

(636 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a Turkish word meaning envoy, from el or il, country, people, or state, with the occupational suffix či (= d̲j̲i ). In some eastern Turkish texts the word appears to denote the ruler of a land or people; its normal meaning, however, since early times, has been that of envoy or messenger, usually in a diplomatic, sometimes, in mystical literature, in …
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