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Latinius

(274 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Römischer Gentilname (etr. latini), entstanden aus dem Ethnikon Latinus. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., T. Der Legende nach wies Iuppiter ihn an, den Consuln während des Latinerkriegs eine Wiederholung der ludi Romani aufzutragen Nach Livius (2,36,2-8), der die urspr. wohl zeitlose Legende ins J. 491 v.Chr. setzt, gab Iuppiter L. im Traum die Weisung, den Consuln während des Latinerkrieges eine Wiederholung der ludi Romani ( ludi ) aufzutragen, der er nach zweimaliger Mißachtung und folgender Strafen schließlich nachkam (vgl. Val. Max. 1,7,4; Aug. civ. 4,26; ohne Nennung eines Namens u.a. Cic. div. 1,55; andere Namen u.a. bei Lact. inst. 2,7,20; Macr. Sat. 1,11,3, wo der Fall zudem ins J. 279 datiert wird).…

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepte…

Numisius

(590 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman nomen gentile (epigraphically Numesius, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] One of the praetors of the Latin league in 340 BC One of the two chief magistrates ( praetores) of the Latin League, who, with his colleague L. Annius [I 3], attempted to enforce perfect equality between the Latins and the Romans in 340 BC, firstly through negotiations and then by means of war; he also continued the war after the defeat of the Latins on Mt. Vesuvius (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12).…

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Lud…

Numisius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Seltener röm. Gentilname (inschr. auch Numesios, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Einer der Praetoren des latinischen Bundes 340 v. Chr. Einer der beiden Oberbeamten (Praetoren) des latinischen Bundes, der mit seinem Kollegen L. Annius [I 3] 340 v.Chr. zunächst mit Verhandlungen, dann auch mit …

Mamilius

(579 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin. Name der alten Herrscherfamilie aus Tusculum (hsl. häufig mit Manilius und Manlius verwechselt). Da die Stadt als Gründung des Telegonos, des Sohnes des Odysseus und der Kirke, galt, führten sich die Mamilii spätestens seit dem frühen 2. Jh.v.Chr. über Mamilia, die Tochter des Telegonos, auf Odysseus zurück (Mz.: RRC 149; 362; lit. seit augusteischer Zeit: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 4,45,1). Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. wurde die Familie mit M. [I 1] in Rom aufgenommen, erlangten Angehörige der M. mehrfach das Consulat (M. [5-7]; wohl im 1. Jh. v.Chr. ausgestorben.…

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tar…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". …

Veturius

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturi…

Verginius

(1,949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle)
Roman family, probably of Etruscan origin, that played an outstanding role, through the Verginii Tricosti branch (genealogy of the V. Tricosti in [1. 1519]), in Roman politics esp. in the 5th cent. BC. Characteristic of the V. Tricosti are the additional cognomina Caelimontanus, Esquilinus and Rutilus. The political importance of the family steadily declined from around the middle of the 5th cent., becoming altogether insignificant around the middle of the 4th cent. BC. If nothing else, however,…

Horatius

(4,197 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name einer schon im 5. Jh. v.Chr. erloschenen patrizischen gens. Spätere Träger des Namens verdanken ihn der Provenienz aus der nach dieser gens benannten Tribus. [English version] [1] Horatii Gensmitglieder der Horatier (Königszeit). Der Sage nach (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. ant. 3,13,4-22,10) entschied unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] ein Kampf der Drillinge der Horatier gegen die Drillinge der Curiatier statt einer Schlacht den Streit zwischen Rom und Alba Longa. Nachdem zwei Brüder gefallen waren, überwand der letzte H. s…

Horatius

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name of a patrician gens which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC. Later bearers of the name owe it to the provenance from the eponymous tribus. [German version] [1] Horatii Member of the Horatius gens (Royal period). According to legend (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,13,4-22,10), under King Tullus  Hostilius [I 4], the conflict between Rome and  Alba Longa was decided by a fight between the Horatii triplets and the Curiatii triplets rather than a battle. After two brothers had fallen, the last H. overcame his opponent…

Servilius

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family (epigraphically also Serveilius), said to have migrated to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius [4] (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The oldest branches are the Ahalae and Fidenates in the 5th and 4th cents. BC; the Caepiones and Gemini, from whom the Vatiae (Isaurici) descended, appear in the 3rd cent. The last prominent member of the Servilii Caepiones was the murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, son of Servilia [1], and himself adopted into the family. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A fleet commander in the B…

Sextius

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, also confused with Sestius . According to tradition, the family achieved prominence in the 4th cent. BC with S. [I 6] who obtained access to the consulate for plebeians. The family was unimportant under the Republic, with the exception of S. [1 3]; the branch which was best known into the 3rd cent. AD originated with Caesar's follower S. [I 2], but it made spurious claims to be descended from the first plebeian consul S. [I 6] (hence the epithets Africanus and Laterensis). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., Q. Founder of t…

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Sicinius

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, often confused with Siccius; members of the family frequently appear as people's tribunes in the 5th cent. BC, but the family is otherwise insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., C. Tradition links S. with the origins and early development of the people's tribunate ( tribunus plebis ): S. was firstly the initiator of the secessio plebis of 494 BC and then one of the people's tribunes, subsequently elected for the first time (Liv. 2,32,2; 2,33,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,45,2; 6,8…

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Pinarius

(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…
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