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Feodosy Pechersky, Saint

(165 words)

Author(s): Müller, Ludolf
[German Version] (d. May 3, 1074 in the Kiev Cave Monastery). From about 1062, abbot of this monastery, he gave it the rule of the Studios Monastery in Constantinople. Individual asceticism in subterranean caves was replaced by the cenobitic lifestyle (Cenobites, Monasticism) with particular emphasis on community worship and physical work. This order became the model for many Russian monasteries. Since 1108 venerated in the cult throughout Russia, Feodosy become the first Russian monastic saint and is considered, even today, one of the greatest fathers of Russian monasticism. Ludol…

Boris and Gleb

(142 words)

Author(s): Müller, Ludolf
[German Version] (died Jul 15 and Sep 15, 1015, resp.), the first Russian saints to be canonized, the sons of St. ¶ Vladimir, were murdered after his death on the orders of their half-brother Svjatopolk. Another half-brother, Jaroslav, became their avenger and, after his victory over Svjatopolk, promoted the cult of his murdered half-brothers. They are venerated as “sufferers,” who for Christ's sake rejected armed resistance. Ludolf Müller Bibliography L. Müller, ed., Die altrussischen hagiographischen Erzählungen und liturgischen Dichtungen über die heiligen Boris und Gleb, 19…

Hilarion of Kiev

(148 words)

Author(s): Müller, Ludolf
[German Version] Hilarion of Kiev, hieromonk. In 1051 Hilarion became the first Russian metropolitan of Kiev. His extant works, theologically significant, are also stylistic masterpieces: Sermon on Law and Grace, Confession of Faith (written on the occasion of his enthronement), “Hymn to Saint Vladimir,” and “Prayer for Russia.” Nothing is known about the end of his reign as metropolitan and his death. A different metropolitan of Kiev is already attested in 1055. There is no evidence from reliable sources for a frequently posi…

Chronicles

(1,689 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter | Kaufhold, Hubert | Müller, Ludolf | Sprandel, Rolf
[German Version] I. Byzantine Chronicles – II. Eastern Christian Chronicles – III. Russian Chronicles – IV. Western Chronicles I. Byzantine Chronicles Recent scholarship rightly sees world histories and contemporary historical works as a literary unity. In conformity with the terminology used here, in this article “chronicles” encompasses only world histories and annals. The Byzantine world produced far fewer kinds of chronicles than did the West, the Slavic world, and the Christian East. There are virtually no chronicles and annals o…

Social structure

(4,590 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Müller-Wollermann, Renate | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Kuchenbuch, Ludolf (Hagen)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Social structure in the ancient Orient was determined by who controlled the fundamental means of production in an agrarian society, the arable land. The usual form of government in such societies was a patrimonial monarchy. Palaces and temples were the institutional centres dominating the economic and social structures and developments, especially in Egypt and Mesopotamia; all parts of society were directly or indirectly incorporated into this system. The existenc…

Sklaverei

(4,703 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans | Müller-Wollermann, Renate | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim | Heinrichs, Johannes | Prinzing, Günther | Et al.
[English version] I. Alter Orient Im alten Vorderasien ist die S. seit dem frühen 3. Jt. v. Chr. durch mesopot. Keilschrifttexte bezeugt [1]. Zu keiner Zeit jedoch waren Sklaven (=Sk.) die entscheidenden Produzenten im Rahmen der Gesamtökonomie [2]. Vom 3.-1. Jt. v. Chr. erfolgte der Einsatz von Sk. in erster Linie in privaten Hauswirtschaften, in geringerem Maße im Bereich der institutionellen Haushalte (Palast, Tempel). Die Hauptquellen entstammen daher v. a. der Privatrechtssphäre und der staatlic…

Sozialstruktur

(4,013 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes | Müller-Wollermann, Renate | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim | Schneider, Helmuth | Kuchenbuch, Ludolf
[English version] I. Alter Orient Die S. im Alten Orient war bestimmt durch die Verfügungsgewalt über das wesentliche Produktionsmittel einer Agrar-Ges., den Ackerboden. Die übliche Herrschaftsform dieser Ges. war die patrimoniale Monarchie. Palast und Tempel waren v. a. in Mesopot. und Äg. die dominanten, Struktur und Entwicklungsprozesse von Wirtschaft und Ges. bestimmenden Institutionen, in die alle Teile der Ges. direkt oder indirekt inkorporiert waren. Repräsentative Körperschaften (Versammlunge…

Slavery

(5,179 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Müller-Wollermann, Renate | Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Heinrichs, Johannes (Bonn) | Prinzing, Günther | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Mesopotamian cuneiform texts attest to slavery in the ancient Near East from the early 3rd millennium BC [1]. However, at no time were slaves the essential producers in the structure of the total economy [2]. From the 3rd-1st millennia BC, slaves were primarily deployed in private households, and to a lesser extent in institutional households (Palace, Temple). The main sources thus mostly come from the field of private law and governmental legislation [3]. Some of…