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Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Bricinniae

(91 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Fortress of Leontini (eastern Sicily), in 422 BC the scene of disputes between the oligarchs and democrats of Leontini (Thuc. 5,4,4), probably near Colle S. Basilio (Scordia), where remains of walls (5th cent. BC), large silos, hewn into the rock, and an epitaph have been found. The late Byzantine period is documented through graves and a lead blade with a Greek prayer of exorcism. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI s.v. B., G. Manganaro, in: Scritti classici e cristiani offerti a Francesco Corsaro, Università Catania 1994, 461f.

Hykkara

(73 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ὕκκαρα; Hýkkara). Sicanian town in the northwest of  Sicily; a few remains near the sea north of modern Carini (compare the two place names), west of Palermo. H. was conquered in 415 BC by the Athenians who were allied to Segesta [1] and its inhabitants were enslaved ( Peloponnesian War D.). The hetaera Lais [2] was among the captives (Plut. Alcibiades 39; Ath. 13,588c). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)

Hipparis

(63 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] The bigger and northernmost of the two rivers that run into the south-west coast of Sicily near Camarina, modern Íppari ( Oanis), praised by Pindar (Ol. 5,12) as benefactor of Camarina, depicted on city coins as a horned youth. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. B. Curbera, Onomastic of River-Gods in Sicily, in: Philologus 142, 1998, 59f.

Heircte

(68 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Εἱρκτή/ Heirktḗ, Pol. 1,56,3; Ἐρκτή/ Erktḗ, Diod. Sic. 22,10,4). Extensive mountain massif hard to access near Panormus, in 278/7 BC captured from the Carthaginians by Pyrrhus, in 248 won back again by them and defended for three years against Roman attacks (Pol. 1,56f.; Diod. Sic. 33,20). It clearly refers to Monte Pellegrino (606 m) north of Palermo. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 1989, 343.

Cimissa

(89 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κιμίσσα; Kimíssa). Town in Sicily, known from two silver coins ( lítra; hēmídrachmon) from the time of  Timoleon (mid 4th cent. BC); obverse: nymph's head, decorated with earrings, necklace and crown, bearing the legend ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ, reverse: altar with burning sacrificial fire and the legend ΚΙΜΙΣΣΑΙΩΝ (finding-place: Raffe di Mussomeli Agrigento); that is also the probably location of C. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Homonoia dei Kimissaioi, Eunomia dei Geloi e la ninfa (termitana) Sardó, in: U. Fellmeth, H. Sonnabend…

Halicyae

(102 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἁλικύαι; Halikýai). Town of the  Elymi between Lilybaeum and  Entella [1. 168-171] in the Carthaginian sphere of influence. Allied with Athens during the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 7,32,1; IG I2, 20), in 278/7 conquered by Pyrrhus, in 263 by the Romans (Diod. Sic. 22,10,2; 23,5). Cicero counted the Halicyenses among the civitates immunes ac liberae (Cic. Verr. 3,13; 91; 5,15), Pliny among the stipendiarii (Plin. HN 91). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 BTCGI 3. G. Bejor, Città di Sicilia, in: ASNP 12/3, 1982, 838f. G. Manganaro, La Sici…

Achradine

(89 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀχραδίνη; Achradínē). District of  Syracusae with the agora, linked with Ortygia via a bridge (Cic. Verr. 2,4,52; 117; Str. 6,2,4). In 405 BC captured by Himilkon (Diod. Sic. 14, 63), 352 BC plundered by Nypsius on behalf of Dionysius II and liberated by Dion (Plut. Dion 42 f.).  Sicily Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Iscrizioni, Epitaffi ed Epigrammi in Greco della Sicilia centro-orientale di epoca romana, in: MEFRA 106, 1994, 79-118, here 79-82 R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under Roman Empire, 1990, 39 f., 160 (map), 359.

Fretum Siculum

(88 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Strait of Messina between Caenus and Pelorum, 12 stadia (Plin. HN 3,73) or 1,500 passus (Plin. HN 3,86), today 3 km wide, a rift valley, with frequent earthquakes, characterized by fluctuating tidal currents that result in dreaded whirlpools (cf. the myth of  Scylla and Charybdis). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 50f. P. Radici Colace (ed.), Mito, Scienza e Mare: Animali fantastici, mostri e pesci del Mediterraneo (Meeting, …

Herbessus

(111 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἑρβησσός; Herbēssós). Siculian town, modern Montagna di Marzo near Piazza Armerina (Sicily), clearly identified through bronze coins and silver litrai. Literary references: Diod. Sic. 14,7,6-8 (404 BC); 78,7 (396 BC); 20,31,5 (309 BC); 23,8,1; Pol. 1,18,9 (attests, in the report on 262 BC, the geographical proximity of H. to Acragas). Other references: coin hoards of 214-212 BC from M. di Marzo; inscriptions in the Siculian language and script; Greek graffiti; a new, onomastically interesting type of clay glandes…

Insulae Aegates

(101 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] An archipelago between Lilybaeum and Carthage (modern Favignana and Levanza). In 250 BC the Carthaginian fleet anchored here when called to aid by Lilybaeum (Pol. 1,44,2). In 241 BC the naval battle between C. Lutatius Catulus and Hanno (Pol. 1,60,4ff.), which decided the First Punic War, took place within sight of Favignana [1. 248f.]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 Huss. R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under the Roman Empire, 1990, 228, 393 no. 179 G. Purpura, in: SicA 15/48, 1982, 56f.; 18/57-58, 1985, 59-86 A. M. Fallico, Sicilia: XII. Fa…

Cyttarinii

(98 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κυτατταρῖνοι; Kytattarĩnoi). Community in the interior of Sicily; not located. Along with the Petrini and the Scherini the koinón of the C. paid a tax in wheat and barley to the synoikismós of  Entella [1. 264f. no. 208: 5th decree, l. 20]. In 254 BC the C. joined the Roman side in the 1st Punic War (Ἠνατταρῖνοι, Diod. Sic. 23,18,5). Ruined by Verres ( Cetarini, Cic. Verr. 2,3,103). Cf. [2]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 L. Dubois, Inscriptions grecques dialectales de Sicile, 1989 2 G. Bejor, Città di Sicilia nei decreti di Entella…

Anapus

(107 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀναπος; Ánapos) River in  Sicily, rising from Monte Lauro near  Acrae and flows into the harbour of  Syracusae. Its delta is swampy and caused disease amongst besieging armies. According to myth, the river god was the lover of the nymph of the stream Cyane, which flows into the A. (Ov. Met. 5,409 ff.). He was venerated in the form of an ephebic statue ( Ephebia) (Ael. VH 2,33).  Dionysius I built gymnasia along the river (Diod. Sic. 15,13,5). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica (Ko…

Hergetium

(142 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἑργέτιον; Hērgétion). Small town in the interior of Sicily, near Grammichele, and north of  Hybla [1] Heraea; it is mentioned in the Delphian list of the theōrodókoi (col. IV 106; cf. [1. 434f.] with a suggested localization in Ferla, [2. 133ff.32]), and also in an oracle of Dodona [4. 85f.], as well as in Steph. Byz. s.v. Segesta. For the ethnicon cf. bronze coins from Syracuse [3. 203]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Città di Sicilia e santuari panellenici nel III e II sec. a.C., in: Historia 13, 1964, 414-439 2 Id., Alla …

Ameselon

(116 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀμήσελον; Amḗselon). Settlement between  Centuripae and  Agyrium (Diod. Sic. 22,13,1) on Monte San Giorgio (Regalbuto) on the Salso; it was controlled by mercenaries (possibly  Mamertini), before its capture by  Hieron II in 270 BC, who divided its territory between the neighbouring towns of Centuripae and Agyrium. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography R. Calciati (ed.), Corpus Nummorum Siculorum 3, 1987, 333-336 G. Manganaro, Per la storia dei culti nella Sicilia greca, in: Il Tempio Greco in Sicilia, 1980, 148-165 Id., Per una storia …

Inessa

(135 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἴνησσα; Ínēssa). Siculian city on the southern slope of Mount Etna ( Aetne [1]) between Catana and Centoripae, occupied, after the death of Hieron I in 461 BC, by the settlers driven out of Catana, renamed Aetne [2], with the consecration of Hieron as Founder (οἰκιστής; oikistḗs, Diod. Sic. 11,76,3; Str. 6,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; cf. Thuc. 3,103,1; 6,94,3). Should be identified with Cività in Santa Maria di Licodia rather than Poira. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, La caduta dei Diomenidi e il Politikon nomisma in S…

Herbita

(128 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἕρβιτα; Hérbita, Ἑρβίτα; Herbíta). Landlocked Siculian town. Archonides I of H. was a co-founder of Cale Acte (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2; 447/6 BC); Archonides II founded Halaesa after a fight and reconciliation with Dionysius I in 403 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,15,1; 14,16,1-4; 14,78,7). Other records: Cic. Verr. passim; decree of Entella (SEG 30, 1117); coins from M. Alburchia near Gangi [1]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 L. Dubois, Inscriptions grecques dialectales de Sicile, 1989, 25…

Agathyrnon

(125 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρνον; Agáthyrnon). On the north coast of  Sicily between Tyndaris and Cale Acte, rather closer to Capo di Orlando than to S. Agata di Militello (location of a chorion ); founded by Agathyrnus, son of Aeolus [1] (Diod. Sic. 5,8), annexed by Tyndaris. In 210 BC, consul M. Valerius Laevinus deported 4,000 exiles from A., where they had settled, to  Bruttium (Liv. 26, 40, 16 f.). The eponymous hero, a standing youth, is depicted on a bronze coin (with corresponding legend). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography C. Franchina Scurria, Problemi del…

Schera

(125 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Σχέρα; Schéra). A city in western Sicily indicated by its ethnicon Σχερῖνοι/ Scherínoi in the 5th decree of the people's assembly of Entella (Z. 21, cf.  [2]) together with other cities that donated wheat and barley to the Synoikistoi ( Synoikismós ) of Entella. S. was partially destroyed by the Carthaginians in the first of the Punic Wars. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Metoikismos. Metaphora di poleis à Sicilia, in: ASNP 20, 1990, 391-408, esp. 400, n. 41 2 G. Nenci, I decreti di Entella I-V, in: ASNP 21, 1991, 137…

Hipana

(149 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἵπανα; Hípana). Small Siculan town (Pol. 1,24,8-13; Diod. Sic.23,9, manuscript Sittanan), mentioned in connection with the battles of the first Punic war in 261-258 BC. Steph. Byz. (s.v. Ἵ.) describes H. as a ‘town in the entourage of Carthage’ (πόλις περὶ Καρχηδόνα; pólis perì Karchēdóna). It was conquered with difficulty by the Romans in 258 BC. Its location on the Monte dei Cavalli near modern Prizzi is ensured by bronze coins with a bull (reverse) and legend ΙΠΑ (truncated), which were reminted using Punic models. Further finds: silver lítrai after an Agrigentin…
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