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Agathyrnon

(125 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρνον; Agáthyrnon). On the north coast of  Sicily between Tyndaris and Cale Acte, rather closer to Capo di Orlando than to S. Agata di Militello (location of a chorion ); founded by Agathyrnus, son of Aeolus [1] (Diod. Sic. 5,8), annexed by Tyndaris. In 210 BC, consul M. Valerius Laevinus deported 4,000 exiles from A., where they had settled, to  Bruttium (Liv. 26, 40, 16 f.). The eponymous hero, a standing youth, is depicted on a bronze coin (with corresponding legend). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography C. Franchina Scurria, Problemi del…

Bidus

(43 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Beidos). Fortress near Syracuse (Steph. Byz. s.v.; Cic. Verr. 2,53ff.; Liv. 25,27). A town of Bidius lay in the territory of Tauromenium (Steph. Byz. s.v.). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI, 4, 45f. Chiron 25, 1995, no. 35.

Cale Acte

(133 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Καλὴ Ἀκτή; Kalḕ Áktē). Greek town on the northern coast of Sicily, founded in 446 BC by  Ducetius with the support of Archonides, the tyrant of Herbita (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2f.). As early as 495 BC,  Scythas of Zanclae had planned the foundation of an Ionian colony on that site. C.A. was probably first entered in around 200 BC into the lists of the theōrodókoi of Delphi. It was plundered by Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101). Birth place of the rhetor  Caecilius [III 5]. Localized near the modern Caronia Marina. Remains of a reservoir, statue of a togatus. Coins: [1. 129f.]. Manganaro, …

Hergetium

(142 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἑργέτιον; Hērgétion). Small town in the interior of Sicily, near Grammichele, and north of  Hybla [1] Heraea; it is mentioned in the Delphian list of the theōrodókoi (col. IV 106; cf. [1. 434f.] with a suggested localization in Ferla, [2. 133ff.32]), and also in an oracle of Dodona [4. 85f.], as well as in Steph. Byz. s.v. Segesta. For the ethnicon cf. bronze coins from Syracuse [3. 203]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Città di Sicilia e santuari panellenici nel III e II sec. a.C., in: Historia 13, 1964, 414-439 2 Id., Alla …

Longon

(92 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Λόγγων; Lóngōn). Coastal river near Catana in Sicily, probably identical to modern San Paolo. Italion, a Catanian fortress, which was attacked in 247 BC by Hamilcar [3] Barcas (Diod. Sic. 24,6,1; [1. 133; 2. 127-174, especially 156, pl. 9]), was situated close to the source. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981 2 G. Manganaro, Per una storia della chora Katanaia, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (ed.), Grenze und Grenzland. 4. Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Histor. Geogr. (…

Cyttarinii

(98 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κυτατταρῖνοι; Kytattarĩnoi). Community in the interior of Sicily; not located. Along with the Petrini and the Scherini the koinón of the C. paid a tax in wheat and barley to the synoikismós of  Entella [1. 264f. no. 208: 5th decree, l. 20]. In 254 BC the C. joined the Roman side in the 1st Punic War (Ἠνατταρῖνοι, Diod. Sic. 23,18,5). Ruined by Verres ( Cetarini, Cic. Verr. 2,3,103). Cf. [2]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 L. Dubois, Inscriptions grecques dialectales de Sicile, 1989 2 G. Bejor, Città di Sicilia nei decreti di Entella…

Acragas

(744 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Ἀκράγας; Akrágas, Latin Agragantum/Agrigentum, in the Middle Ages Girgenti). River and town (modern Agrigento) on the south-west coast of  Sicily, 4 km inland on a steep rocky hill, which rises from 50 m in the south to 328 m in the north and 351 m in the north-east, encircled by the rivers  Hypsas in the west and A. (S. Biagio) in the east, which join south of…

Achradine

(89 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀχραδίνη; Achradínē). District of  Syracusae with the agora, linked with Ortygia via a bridge (Cic. Verr. 2,4,52; 117; Str. 6,2,4). In 405 BC captured by Himilkon (Diod. Sic. 14, 63), 352 BC plundered by Nypsius on behalf of Dionysius II and liberated by Dion (Plut. Dion 42 f.).  Sicily Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Iscrizioni, Epitaffi ed Epigrammi in Greco della Sicilia centro-orientale di epoca romana, in: MEFRA 106, 1994, 79-118, here 79-82 R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under Roman Empire, 1990, 39 f., 160 (map), 359.

Haluntium

(73 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἀλόντιον; Halóntion). City on the north coast of Sicily (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51; Cic. Verr. 2,3,103; 2,4,51; Plin. HN 3,90; 14,80: viticulture), modern San Marco d'Anunzio. For the gymnasium of H., cf. SEG 26, 1060 (revision in [1]). For coin production cf. [2. 5-16]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Sikelika, 1988 2 F. Bianco, Archeologia Storica di Messina, 1993.

Imachara

(109 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἰμάχαρα; Imáchara). Small town in Sicily (Cic. Verr. 2,3,47; Plin. HN 3,91; Ptol. 3,4,12,3; preserved are kerykeion, IG XIV 589, litrai in two versions). The identification with the excavation site near Nissoria is conceivable. There was a river in the area of I. (reverse of the litra). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica (Testimonia Siciliae antiqua 1,1), Kokalos Suppl. 4, 1981, 190 R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under the Roman Empire, 145, 378 no. 14 S. Cataldi, s.v. I., BTCGI 8, 238-247 G. …

Hybla

(437 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
(Ὕβλα; Hýbla). [German version] [1] H. Megale/Heraea (Ὕ. Μεγάλη; H. Megálē, Ἡραία; Hēraía). The existence of H. is indisputable (differing: [6]), but the location of the city near Ragusa (on Sicily) is not clearly determined. Hippocrates, the ruler of H., died during the siege by the Siculans in 491 BC (Hdt. 7,155,1). H. had three bronze coin emissions with the legend Ὕβλας Μεγάλας, their circulation was limited to a small area (around Ragusa, Modica, Vizzini). Of great importance is the list of the theorodokoi of Delphi, in which Υβλας appears after Camarina and before Herget…

Chrysas

(41 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Sicilian river close to the road to Morgantina in the territory of Agyrion (Diod. Sic. 14,95,2), modern Dittaino. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography L. Rocchetti, EAA 2, 1959, 570 C. Vitanza, Arch. St. Sic. or., 12, 1915, 163-180.

Amenanus

(100 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀμενανός; Amenanós). The modern river of Giudicello, which still runs under the cathedral square of Catania; in antiquity, it supplied water to  Catana (depicted as a minotaurus on the earliest tetradrachmas: BMC, Greek, Sicilia, 48 ff.; on bronze coins of the 1st cent. BC reclining in Nile fashion; cf. Pind. Pyth. 1,132; Str. 5,3,13; Ov. Met. 15,279; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κατάνη; Katánē). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography Ch. Hülsen, s.v. Amenanus, RE 1, 1823 G. Manganaro, Per una storia della ‘chora Katanaia’, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend …

Ichana

(117 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἴχανα; Íchana). Settlement on Sicily, fell under the rule of Syracusae (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.). Evidence: handle of a bronze kerykeion, with the inscription Ιχανινοδαμοσιον; silver hēmílitron (obverse horned head, personification of a river, to its right on some impressions ΣΙΧΑ, on the reverse the bow of a ship with the legend ΝΙΚΑ, datable to the end of the 5th cent. BC; I., therefore, celebrated a naval victory); in a Siculan inscription from Herbessus is ΘΙΚΑΝΑ. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, in: JNG 33, 1984, 31-33 Id., Al…

Herineus

(69 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] River in Sicily along the via Elorina, mentioned by Thucydides (7,80,6; 82,3) in conjunction with the retreat of the Athenians in 413 BC, possibly identical with the Cavallata north of the Assinarus. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Alla ricerca di poleis mikrai della Sicilia centro-orientale, in: Orbis Terrarum 2, 1996, 139 with fn. 50 L. Robert, Noms indigènes de l'Asie Mineure gréco-romaine, 1963, 37f.

Bricinniae

(91 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Fortress of Leontini (eastern Sicily), in 422 BC the scene of disputes between the oligarchs and democrats of Leontini (Thuc. 5,4,4), probably near Colle S. Basilio (Scordia), where remains of walls (5th cent. BC), large silos, hewn into the rock, and an epitaph have been found. The late Byzantine period is documented through graves and a lead blade with a Greek prayer of exorcism. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI s.v. B., G. Manganaro, in: Scritti classici e cristiani offerti a Francesco Corsaro, Università Catania 1994, 461f.

Adranum (Hadranum)

(159 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀδρανόν/ Adranón, Hadranum). Founded c. 400 BC by Dionysios I near the Siculan sanctuary of Adranus on the western slopes of the volcano Aetna [1] (Diod. 14,37,4) on the Adranus (coins), a tributary of the Symaethus; modern Adrano, ancient remains. Timoleon, in alliance with A., defeated Hicetas near there (Diod. 16,68-69). A. was conquered by the Romans in 263 BC (Diod. 23,4,1); A. was given Ius Latii (Plin. 3,91). Near A. was the Siculan centre of Mendolito with inscriptions (IG XIV 567-572), coins and prehistoric pottery ware (Siculan collect…

Heircte

(68 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Εἱρκτή/ Heirktḗ, Pol. 1,56,3; Ἐρκτή/ Erktḗ, Diod. Sic. 22,10,4). Extensive mountain massif hard to access near Panormus, in 278/7 BC captured from the Carthaginians by Pyrrhus, in 248 won back again by them and defended for three years against Roman attacks (Pol. 1,56f.; Diod. Sic. 33,20). It clearly refers to Monte Pellegrino (606 m) north of Palermo. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 1989, 343.

Cacyparis

(42 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κακύπαρις; Kakýparis). River in eastern Sicily, rising near Palazzolo Acreide, its mouth 17 km south-west of Syracusae (Thuc. 7,80,5 on the retreat of the Athenians in 413 BC); modern Cassibile. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI 5, 45-53.

Galaria

(129 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Town of the Siculi, localized by Rizzo [1. 67] near the Sicilian S. Mauro di Caltagirone. Only mentioned by Diodorus twice: in the context of the battle against the Carthaginians alongside  Entella in 334 BC (Diod. Sic. 16,67,3) and in the context of the 312/311 BC revolt against Agathocles (Diod. Sic. 19,104). Archaeological finds: rare silver lítrai, originating from the area north-west of Mineo (cf. [2. 84-87; 3. 36-39]). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. E. Rizzo, Monete greche di Sicilia, 1946 2 K. Jenkins, in: Atti di IV Con…
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