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Sinuessa

(155 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae (Σινοέσση; Sinoéssē). City in the south of Latium (Σενοεσανοί/ Senoesanoí, Pol. 3,91,4; Str. 5,2,1; 3,4-9; 4,3 f.; 6,3,7; It. Ant. 108,4; Tab. Peut. 6,3), established as a Roman colonia maritima in 296 BC during the Third Samnite War (Samnites, Samnium) in the saltus Vescinus west of Mons Massicus on the Mare Tyrrhenum. The previous settlement is claimed to have been a Greek city with the name of Sinope (Liv. 10,21,8; 22,14,4; Vell. Pat. 1,14,6;…

Tusculum

(668 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium (modern Tuscolo). Town on the mons Albanus in Latium (Latini with map; Cic. Leg. agr. 2,96; Liv. 2,15,7; Str. 5,3,9: Τούσκλον/ Toúsklon; Diod. Sic. 11,40,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,76; Cass. Dio 79,21; Ptol. 3,1,61: Τούσκουλον/ Toúskoulon; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύσκλος). Foundation legends mention Telegonus (Liv. 1,49; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45, but cf. ibid. 1,72) or Latinus [2] Silvius as the founder (Diod. Sic. 7, fr. 4). As a member of the Latin League, T. was among those…

Saena

(120 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria City in Etruria (Tab. Peut. 4,3: Sena Iulia; Ptol. 3,1,49: Σαίνα/ Saína), present-day Siena. The earliest traces of settlements date from the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Extant are late Etruscan hypogaea (Porta Pispini, Corancina, Porta S. Marco, Porta Camollia). S. was an Augustan colonia (CIL IX 332) of regio VII (Plin. HN 3,51), tribus Oufentina (Tac. Hist. 4,45). A dedication of the ordo Saenensium dates from AD 394 (CIL VI 1793). Thermae are located near Pieve a Bozzona on the Via Cassia. Mo…

Verulae

(217 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] Hernici city in Latium on the southern slopes of the Ernici mountains on a steep rock outcrop (570 m in height) in the upper valley of the Cosa, a left bank tributary of the Trerus (or Tolerus, modern Sacco), on a northern side road of the Via Latina, modern Veroli. V. did not ally with the Hernici in a battle against Rome in 307/6 BC, refused the civitas cum suffragio offered as a reward by Rome and retained its own laws with civitas sine suffragio (Civitas B; Liv. 9,42,11; 9,43,23). A municipium (Plin. HN 3,64); duoviri and a senate are mentioned (CIL…

Pityussae

(81 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (Πιτυοῦσσαι/ Pityoûssai). Appellation of the two islands of Ebusus and Ophiussa  (Ὀφιοῦσσα/ Ophioûssa, from ὄφις/ óphis, 'snake'; so also the Latin name Colubraria, from Lat. colubra, 'snake') in the Baliares; so called for their spruce forests (Str. 5,3,1; Ptol. 2,6,77; Plin. HN 3,76-78; Mela 2,126); modern Formentera. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography Trabajos del Museo arqueologico de Ibiza, vol. 1-30, 1979-1993  J.H. Fernandez Eivissa, Bibliografia arqueológica de las islas Pitiusas 1, 1980; 2, 1986; 3, 1993  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997.

Vipitenum

(153 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] Mansio (possibly founded in the 2nd cent. AD; It. Ant. 275; 280; Tab. Peut. 4,2: Vepiteno) in the Val d'Isarco in South Tyrol, modern Vipiteno on the Via Claudia Augusta, which led from Pons [8] Drusi and Altinum over the Brenner Pass to Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg). Not located, probably between Matreia and Sublavione. In the Bronze and Iron Ages the region around V. was probably inhabited by autochthonous pre-Indo-European peoples, generally described by the Romans as the Raeti. A…

Vada Volaterrana

(150 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (modern Vada). Etruscan port (Cic. Quinct. 6,24; Plin. HN 3,5; 3,8; Rut. Namat. 1,453-462; It. Maritimum 501,3 f.; It. Ant. 292,6; Tab. Peut. 4,2: Vada Volatera) on the Mare Tyrrhenum to the northwest of the mouth of the Caecina [III 1]/Cecina, settled from the 9th cent. BC. The harbour basin lay between Punta Caletta and Punta del Tesorino. Remains can be found in San Gaetano. Necropoleis, three thermal baths, remains of horrea (granaries) and of a macellum (1st/2nd cent. AD) survive in Poggetto. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography P. Gambogi, M. Pasq…

Prochyta

(112 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (Προχύτη/ Prochýtē, Lat. Procida). Island in the Bay of Puteoli (Plin. HN 3,82), modern Prócida, separated from Pithecussae  by an earthquake in pre-historical times(Str. 5,4,9; Plin. HN 2,203). It is an aetiological invention of the poet Naevius [I 1] from Campania that the grave of Aeneas [1]'s nurse is on P. (Serv. Aen. 9,712; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,53,3 ff.). The most recent excavations demonstrate that P. was a significant centre of trade in the 16th/15th cents. BC. Right next to P. is the island of Vivara, with Aegean-Mycenaean finds. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Flo…

Tuscana

(144 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria (Τυρρηνία/ Tyrrhēnía, Τυρρηνή/ Tyrrhēnḗ; modern Tuscania). Etruscan city on the right bank of the Marta (Plin. HN 3,52; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τυρρηνία), where the via Claudia crosses the river (Tab. Peut. 5,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,36; 6,2379a; 5,49). A municipium , tribus Stellatina after the Social War [3]; various magistrates are known from inscriptions: e.g. decurio Tuscaniensium, quattuorvir, decurialis haruspex (CIL XI 2955-2959; 2970). The acropolis was on San Pietro hill. The city was lai…

Tuder

(299 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages (Τοῦδερ/ Toûder; modern Todi). City in Umbria (Umbri) on a steep elevation (411 m) on the left bank of the Tiber between Umbria and Etruria (Str. 5,2,10; Ptol. 3,1,54; Plut. Crassus 6,6: Τουδερτία/ Toudertía). With its river port and its location on the v ia Amerina and near the vicus Martis Tudertium (modern Santa Maria in Pantano; ad Martis [3] on the silver cups of Vicarello 102 Miller; Tab. Peut. 5,1), which was on the v ia Flaminia and was part of T.'…

Pinna

(101 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) (Πίννα/ Pínna). City in the region of the Vestini (Tab. Peut. 6,1), modern Penne. From the Social Wars [3] (91-88 BC) on, a municipium of the tribus Quirina (Vitr. 8,3,5; Ptol. 3,1,59); from Augustus on, in the 4th Region (Plin. HN 3,107). Remains of the urban site on the Colle Castello at San Domenico and on the Colle Duomo. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography G. Firpo, in: Fonti Latine e Greche per la storia dell'Abruzzo antico, 2,2, 1988, 841-858  Abruzzo e Molise (Keiron 19-20), 199…

Prima Porta

(207 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] Late Antique designation of a station on the via Flaminia - the place name can be found on a brick arch (probably an aqueduct, 4th cent. AD) - where, at the 9th milestone north of Rome near Saxa Rubra at the junction of the via Tiberina and a road to Veii branching from the via Flaminia, the remains of a compitum ( compitalia ) are located. There, in the vicinity of a laurel grove where white chickens were kept for religious reasons and that served as the source for the branch for the triumphator (Triumph) from the time of Augustus, stood the villa ad Gallinas albas of Livia [2] (Pli…

Praetuttii, Praetuttiana regio

(226 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] People and region (with vineyards: Plin. HN 14,60, 67; 75) on the Italian Adriatic coast (Ionios Kolpos); the PR corresponded to the ager Praetuttianus of regio V (Plin. HN 3,110) between the river Helvinus (identification uncertain - present-day Salinello? Vibrata? Acquarossa? Aso?) in the north, the Abruzzi in the west ( mons Fiscellus, present-day Gran Sasso; Monti della Laga) and the river Vomanus (present-day Vomano) in the south. Siculi and Liburni are said to have originally settled here (Plin. HN 3,112). In 290 BC, the P. w…

Privernum

(200 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus (Πρίβερνον/ Príbernon). City of the Volsci south of the Mons Lepinus on the upper reaches of the Amasenus in Latium (Str. 5,3,10; Ptol. 3,1,63: Πριούερνον/ Prioúernon; the region ager Privernas, cf. Cic. De or. 2,224. Wine growing: Plin. HN 14,65), modern Madonna di Mezzagosto near Priverno. After ferocious battles with the Romans (the triumphs de Privernatibus in 357 and 329 BC, Liv. 7,16,6 and 8,20,7 ff.; CIL I2 1, p. 44 f.), P. became a Roman praefectura (Fest. 262,12), later a civitas sine suffragio (Liv. 8,21,10), c.

Satricum

(276 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Latini, Latium City in Latium on the road from Antium to Velitrae, near modern Borgo Montello to the northeast of Anzio. Traces of settlement from the 10th century BC on. In the 7th/6th century BC an Etruscan foundation. In the 5th/4th century BC S. was a settlement of the  Volsci, who participated in the battle of Lacus Regillus on the side of the Latini (Dion. Hal. ant.  5,61,3). S. was destroyed twice in the course of the Roman-Latin …

Prolaqueum

(68 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Statio in the valley of the upper Flusor (modern Potenza) on the road from Nuceria [3] to Ancona (It. Ant. 312,2: Prolaque; cf. CIL IX 5642), present-day Pioraco. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography V. Galiè, Strade ed insediamenti romano-medievali tra il Potenza ed il Chienti lungo il litorale, in: Studi Maceratesi 16, 1980, 3-78.

Saepinum

(187 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Oracles Samnite town (Ptol. 3,1,67: Σαίπινον/ Saípinon; Tab. Peut. 6,4: Sepinum), modern Altília north of Sepino (differently [1]). Conquered by the Romans in 293 BC (Liv. 10,44 f.). A municipium beginning in 89 BC (CIL IX 2451 f.; 2457; 2565); a colonia from AD 2 on; regio IV (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX 2443), tribus Voltinia. The settlement of the 4th and 3rd cents. (Terravecchia) was surrounded by a wall ( opus polygonale). The remains of the forum, with public buildings such as a tribunal columnatum (CIL IX 6368) and a …

Querquetulanae virae

(153 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] Guardian nymphs of an oak grove ( querquetum virescens) near the Porta Querquetulana in Rome, in the area of the Servian wall on the Caelius mons [1] between Porta Capena and Porta Caelimontana (Plin. HN 16,37; Fest. 314 L; Varro Ling. 5,49: Lares Querquetulani). According to the (not undisputed) view of [1. 365], the three querquetulanae virae are represented on a late Republican denarius (cf. [3. 187 No. 1148]). The identification of the Querquetulanus mons with the Caelius mons (Tac. Ann. 4,65) is likewise disputed [2. 443 f.]. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bib…

Urbs Vetus

(65 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] (Οὐρβιβεντός/ Ou rbibentós; modern Orvieto). Etruscan city in the valley of the Pallia (modern Paglia) on a high tuff outcrop (cf. the description of the site of the city in  Procop. Goth. 2,20,5-11; cf. Geogr. Rav. 4,36: Orbevetus; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 4,32;  Procop. Goth. 2,11,1; 2,18,19), its identification with Volsinii Veteres is controversial. Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 13, 1-88.

Venafrum

(401 words)

Author(s): Morciano, Maria Milvia (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Coloniae (Οὐέναφρον; Ouénaphron). City of the Samnites in the valley of the Volturnus [1] (Str. 5,3,10; 5,4,3; 5,4,11; App. B Civ. 1,41; Ptol. 3,1,68) on a natural route connecting Samnium and Campania. Modern Venafro, V. was p raefectura Venafrana in the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (Fest. 262,14), Augustan colonia (CIL X 4894;  cf. 4875; Liber coloniarum 239) of r egio I (Plin. HN 3,63), tribus Terentina (CIL X 1, p. 477), and from the 4th cent. AD onwards it was in the province of Sa…
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