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Judaism, History of, Part IV.B: Medieval Times. Islam

(10,626 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
It is virtually impossible to know what was normative Judaism and Jewish practice during the first two hundred years of the Muslim Caliphate, in the seventh through ninth centuries. The great Islamic Arab conquests of the seventh and early eighth centuries brought the majority of world Jewry living at that time from Spain to Persia and Central Asia under the rule of a single empire, the Dar al-Islam (“the Domain of Islam”). The two hundred years immediately preceding the Islamic conquests and fo…

Judaism, History of, Part V.B: Modern Times. The Muslim World

(10,641 words)

Author(s): Stillman, Norman A.
The expulsion of the Jews from Christian Spain in 1492 in a very real sense marked the beginning of modern times for the Jews of the Muslim world. Many of the exiles sought refuge in the Islamic kingdoms of the Maghreb, in Mamluk Egypt and the Levant, and in the expanding Ottoman Empire, which within a generation would take over all of the Middle East and North Africa between the borders of Persia and Morocco. These Sephardic refugees infused new vitality—demographically, culturally, and spiritu…

Rav ha-Kolel

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Hakham Bashi (Chief Rabbi)Norman A. Stillman

Sābāwī Yūnis al-

(6 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see FarhūdNorman A. Stillman

Ezekiel's Tomb (al-Kifl)

(695 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The traditional tomb of the biblical prophet Ezekiel is situated in the village of al-Kifl (coll. Ir. Ar. al-Chifl) on the Euphrates River, 32 kilometers (20 miles) south of the town of Hilla in central Iraq. The name of the town is from Ezekiel’s epithet of Dhū ʾl-Kifl (the Guarantor) in Islamic lore (Ezekiel, Ar. Ḥizqīl, is not mentioned in the Qurʾān). The first known mention of the tomb is in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon ( Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaʾon) in the tenth century. Benjamin of Tudela visited the shrine around 1170 (Adler ed., pp. 67-68). His account notes that “people come from a distanc…

Mahdiyya, al-

(513 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Al-Mahdiyya is a coastal city in present-day Tunisia, 200 kilometers (124 miles) south of Tunis, founded by the first Fatimid caliph, ʿUbayd Allāh al-Mahdī (r. 909–934), to be his capital in place of Qayrawan. The establishment of a capital on the coast represented a singular break with Islamic tradition, which since the time of the conquests in the seventh century was to build new urban administrative centers inland away from the Byzantine Sea (as the Mediterranean was called). Al-Mahdiyya did not replace Qayrawan …

Tujjār al-Sultān

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Essaouira (Mogador); MoroccoNorman A. Stillman

Blood libels

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism; Damascus Affair (1840)Norman A. Stillman

Sharḥ (pl. Shurūḥ)

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Bible TranslationsNorman A. Stillman

Maqāma (- āt) (poetic form)

(14 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Music, al-Ḥarīzī, Judah ben Solomon (c. 1166-1225)Norman A. Stillman

Ḥoter b. Solomon

(11 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Dhamārī, Manṣūr Sulaymān (Ḥoter ben Solomon)Norman A. Stillman

Alroy, David

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Rūjī, Solomon and Menahem, alNorman A. Stillman

Bougie

(6 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Béjaïa (Bougie, Bijāya)Norman A. Stillman

Contributor Biographies. Contributors

(24,425 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Abdar, CarmellaPhD Among her main areas of expertise are folk art and material culture of Yemenite Jews, mainly rural communities. She has published several articles: “The dress code as an expression of ethno-religious status of the Jews”; “The Habbanic bride’s dress in 1950s in Israel—a bridge between past and present”; “The Yemenite jewelry and the myth of antiquity” She wrote the book Weaving a Story [Hebrew, 1999] about a village in Yemen and edited the book Maʾase Rokem: Dress and Jewelry in…
Date: 2015-09-03

Rome

(4 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see ItalyNorman A. Stillman

Court Jews

(3,531 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
As throughout Diaspora history, there were Jews in the Islamic world from the Middle Ages up to and including the modern era who served as officials and retainers at the courts of Muslim rulers. They served in much the same capacities as their coreligionists who served at courts in medieval Western Europe and in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Central Europe as physicians, advisers, bankers, and purveyors of goods and services to the ruler. Like their European counterparts, they often acted as intermediaries (Eur. Heb. shtadlanim) with the authorities on behalf of their br…

Ibn Shortmeqash

(6 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ibn (al-)MuhājirNorman A. Stillman

New York

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see United States of AmericaNorman A. Stillman

Ibn ʿAṭṭār Judah b. Jacob

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben ʿAṭṭār (or Ibn ʿAṭṭār) FamilyNorman A. Stillman

Tekinalp, Munis

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Kohen, Moise (Tekinalp)Norman A. Stillman
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