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Autocephaly

(775 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
The word autocephaly, a technical term in Orthodox canon law, denotes the independence of a church, manifested in the independent election and consecration of its head (compare the meaning of the Greek words autós, “self,” and kephal , “head”) and all bishops as well as the independent regulation of all internal and ecumenical affairs on the basis of the liturgical, doctrinal, and canonical tradition that links all Orthodox churches. Autocephaly is distinct from  Autonomy, which denotes a limited independence, in which a church is…
Date: 2019-10-14

Autokephalie

(689 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
A., ein Terminus technicus des orth. Kirchenrechts, bezeichnet die Selbständigkeit einer Kirche. Diese manifestiert sich in der unabhängigen Wahl und Weihe des Oberhauptes (vgl. die Bedeutung der griech. Begriffe autós = selbst; kephal椃= Haupt) und aller Bischöfe sowie der eigenständigen Regelung aller inner- und zwischenkirchlichen Angelegenheiten auf der Grundlage der die orth. Kirchen verbindenden liturgischen, dogmatischen und kanonischen Tradition. Die A. wird von der Autonomie unterschieden, die eine bedingte Selbständigkeit bedeutet, insofern bei der …
Date: 2019-11-19

Theophanes the Greek

(136 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Feofan Grek; c. 1325–1404/1415), an important Byzantine artist who worked in Russia from 1378 until his death. Indisputably from his hand are the frescoes in the Church of the Transfiguration in Novgorod. It has recently come into question whether the Deesis series in the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Proclamation in the Kremlin in Moscow is also his work. According to a 1415 letter by the hagiographer Epifanij Premudryj of 1415 (the most comprehensively preserved personal eval…

Nicea, Council of (787)

(435 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] This synod ended the first phase of the controversy over the veneration of images (VI). The Synod of Hiereia in 754 (Constantinople: IV, 5) had made iconoclasm the theological teaching of the Empire. The resistance of a few monks led to the destruction of icons and several martyrdoms. The iconophile empress Irene (780–802) worked to reverse the decision. Because only a new ecumenical council could have the authority to annul the decision of the synod in 754, she laid the groundwor…

Millet System

(372 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The word millet (from Arab. milla, “religion”) means “religious nationality”; it was used in the Ottoman Empire for the national religious communities allowed self-government in ethnic, cultural, and religious matters on the basis of Islamic interna-¶ tional law. It was based on the overriding identification of the peoples governed with their religion regardless of all ethnic bonds and differences, together with contact between the sultan and the communities regarding their religious leadership. Thus these religious…

Zonaras, Joannes

(181 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (mid-11th cent. – mid-12th cent.), Byzantine historian and canonist who held high offices under Emperor Alexius I (1081–1118). After the emperor’s death, he became a monk and (besides several shorter works) wrote two major works: (1) a world chronicle ( Epitome historiarum, ed. L. Dindorf, 6 vols., 1868–1875) from Creation to the year 1118 (compiled from earlier sources for the period before 1081, after that independent), distinguished for its balance, which was translated into Slavic, Latin, and Romance languages, and (…

Fernandez, Alonso

(188 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1573, Malpartida de Plasencia – c.1633, Plasencia, Spain), OP (1587), historian and preacher. He was honored in 1618 at the General Chapter of Lisbon with the title Preacher General. Fernandez authored works on the history of the Dominicans in Spain, of which a few remain unpublished. He was prior in Zamora, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Cáceres and finally in Plasencia. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works: Historia ecclesiastica de nuestros tiempos, 1611 Historia y anales de la devoción y milagros del Rosario, 1613 De los servicios que a los Reinos de España ha hecho la …

Dositheus of Jerusalem

(283 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 31, 1641, Peloponnese – Feb 6/7, 1707, Constantinople). Ordained to the diaconate at the age of 16, Dositheus became metropolitan of Caesarea in September 1666, and in January 1669 patriarch of Jerusalem, a position he held for 38 years, only two of which he spent in residence; the rest of the time he spent on fund-raising journeys in Russia, Asia Minor, and the Balkans. He played a central role in the process protecting Orthodoxy against Calvinistic and “Latin” influences, which dominated the century following the Confessio of C. Lucaris (1629). Of particular…

John the Faster (Saint)

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] John the Faster (Saint), patriarch of Constantinople, Apr 12, 582 – Sep 2, 595, previously deacon at the Hagia Sophia; because of his asceticism, he was already known during his lifetime as “the Faster” (ὁ Νηστευτής/ ho Nēsteutḗs). This is probably the reason why, from the 11th century on, a majority of the Byzantine literature on penitential discipline written since the 9th century was attributed to him. Popes Pelagius II and Gregory the Great erroneously understood the designation “ ecumenical patriarch,” already attested before John and after him the titl…

Balsamon, Theodoros

(114 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1110–1140, Constantinople – after 1195, Constantinople), a Byzantine canonist. As deacon of the Hagia Sophia, Balsamon combined the supreme authority for all affairs of the patriarchate (as its “Chartophylax”) with a juridical office in the service of the state (“Homophylax”). Having fallen out of favor after 1180, Balsamon became the patriarch of Antioch, although he never left the capital. His chief works – which remain fundamental for Orthodox canon law – are the commentaries on the Nomocanon 14 titulorum and on the Synodal and Patriarchal Canons. Heinz Ohme Bibl…

Barsanuphius

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Barsanorius; feast: Feb 6), an ascetic author of Egyptian origin. He died c. 545 as a hermit in the monastery of Abba Seridos near Gaza. Together with the hermit John “the prophet,” he gave spiritual advice by answering letters sent to him by monks, bishops, and laypersons. Approx. 850 such questions and responses were collected ( biblos psychophelestate). They afford deep insights into the life of the Palestinian church in the 5th/6th centuries, attest to the reception of the asc…

Germanus I of Constantinople

(204 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (patriarch; Aug 11, 715 to Jan 17, 730; b. before 669, d. after 730; feast day: May 12). Germanus became metropolitan of Cyzicus c. 705; in 712 he signed a declaration in support of Monotheletism, which he retracted in 713. From 727 to 729, he wrote a number of letters directed against the rise of iconoclasm, but gave up in the face of the iconoclastic policies of Emperor Leo III and was sent into exile. Anathematized by the iconoclasts in 754 (Anathema), he was rehabilitated in 7…

Synaxarion

(171 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (from Gk σύναξις/ sýnaxis, assembly). In the Orthodox churches, the Synaxarion contains the information on the daily propers for the liturgical commemoration of the saints (Saints/Veneration of the saints: III, 2). This information usually includes the day of the month, an epigram concerning the saint, brief historical notes, information about the saint’s commemoration, place of burial, and any translations of his or her relics, and an abridged vita. This information for the liturgical year, summarized in a book for the church in Constantinople (…

Pentarchy

(342 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] denotes a model of church polity that developed in the Early Church, in which the five patriarchates (Patriarch: I), in order of rank Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, had constitutive significance for the leadership of the whole church. The developing patriarchal constitution was reflected in cc. 6 and 7 of the Council of Nicea (325), c. 3 of Constantinople (IV: 1; 381), and c. 28 of Chalcedon (451), but the pentarchical hierarchy of the five cathedrae is …

Alivisatos, Hamilcar Spiridonus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 17, 1887, Lixurion – Aug 14, 1969, Athens) was professor of canon law and practical theology in Athens 1919–1956; academically, ecclessially and politically, he was one of the most important personalities in the Greek church in the 20th century. He authored almost 300 publications, co-authored the Church Constitution of 1923, organized the first Orthodox theological congress in Athens in 1936, was a pioneer in the ecumenical movement beginning in 1920, and was a member of the executive committee of the WCC from 1948 to 1968. Heinz Ohme Bibliography G.I. Konidares…

Quinisextum

(337 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (Πεn̆ϑε´κτη/Penthe´ktē) heißt die von Kaiser Justinian II. (685–695; 705–711) 691/92 nach Konstantinopel (: IV.,4.) als ökum. einberufene Synode, weil sie das kanonische Defizit des V. und VI. ökum. Konzils (Konstantinopel: IV.,2. und 3.) beseitigen wollte. Wegen des identischen Tagungsortes mit letzterem, dem kaiserlichen Kuppelsaal (Trullos), wird es auch »II. Trullanum« genannt. Der Kaiser und 220 Bischöfe beschlossen in 102 Kanones die bis dahin umfassendste kirchenrechtlich…

Nomokanon

(353 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] nennt man seit dem 11.Jh. die systematisierten Zusammenstellungen von Synodal- und Väterkanones (Kanones/Kanonessammlung) mit dem Staatskirchenrecht (von griech. no´moi, »Gesetze«), die seit dem 6.Jh. entstehen. – Seit Konstantin haben die christl. Kaiser staatl. Gesetze in kirchl. Angelegenheiten erlassen. In ihnen manifestierte sich die seitdem betriebene Synthese von Imperium und Kirche, deren Gipfelpunkt bei Justinian I. erreicht wird. Im Codex Iustinianus sind die ersten 13 …

Stavropigiale Klöster

(247 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] . Die Synode von Chalcedon (451; Ökum. Konzil) nahm erstmals eine kirchl. »Einordnung« des Mönchtums vor, das nun den Ortsbischöfen unterstellt wurde; der Bau von Klöstern wurde an die bfl. Genehmigung gebunden (c.4). Äußeres Zeichen einer Klostergründung war die Aufstellung eines Kreuzes, die sog. Stavropigia (von griech. σταυρο`n̆ πηγn̆υ´n̆αι/staurón pēgnýnai), belegt im Staatskirchenrecht Kaiser Justinians I. (Cod.Iust. I 3,26; Nov. [Novellae] 5,1; 67,1; 131,7), das diese kanonische Rechtssetzung übernahm (Cod.Iust. I 3,39;…

Nicaea

(359 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[English Version] (Nizäa/Nikaia), Konzil von 787. Diese Synode bildete den Abschluß der ersten Phase des Streites über den Bilderkult (: VI.). Durch die Synode von Hiereia (754 Konstantinopel/Byzanz: IV.,5.) war der Ikonoklasmus zum Reichsdogma geworden. Der Widerstand einzelner Mönche dagegen führte zur Zerstörung von Ikonen und einigen Martyrien. Die bilderfreundliche Kaiserin Eirene (780–802) bewirkte eine Wende. Weil eine Annullierung der Synode von 754 nur durch ein neues ökum. Konzil denkbar wa…

Quinisext Council

(410 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Πεvϑέκτη/ Penthéktē) is the name given to the ecumenical synod convoked by Emperor Justinian II (685–695; 705–711) in Constantinople (IV, 4) in 691/692, as it was meant to resolve the canonical deficits of the 5th and 6th ecumenical councils (Constantinople: IV, 2 & 3). Because it convened at the same location where the 6th ecumenical council was held (the domed hall [Trullos] of the imperial palace), it is also known as “Trullanum II.” In 102 canons (Canons/Canon collections), th…
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