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(5,435 words)

Author(s): Olbrycht, Marek
TACITUS, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS, Roman official and historian (ca. 55-120 CE). Tacitus originated from Gaul (Roman Galia Narbonensis) and had a senatorial career in the Flavian period (70-96 CE). He was a consul in 97 and proconsul in the province of Asia (western Turkey) in 112. He died in about 120 (Tacitus: PIR2 C1467; Syme, 1958, 1970; Borzsák; Oliver; Birley). Tacitus’ most cited works are the  Annals ( Cornelii Taciti Annalium ab excessu divi Augusti libri) and the  Histories ( Historiae). In addition, Tacitus published minor works, including the  Life of Agricola ( De vita Iu…
Date: 2021-08-26


(4,580 words)

Author(s): Olbrycht, Marek
PHRAATES V (Phraataces, r. 3/2 BCE-4 CE), Parthian king, son and successor of Phraates IV (q.v.). Accession . Phraataces’ reign (partly alongside his mother Musa) in Parthia was relatively short, but it abounded in important events in both domestic and foreign policy (Anderson, pp. 273-77; Debevoise, pp. 143-51; Ziegler, pp. 51-57; Pani, pp. 44-55; Dąbrowa, 1983, pp. 42-45; Karras-Klapproth, pp. 145-47; Schottky, 1991, pp. 61-63; Wolski, pp. 148-49; Swan, pp. 112-37; Gaslain, pp. 106-11; Bigwood; Huber and Hart…
Date: 2021-11-17


(7,278 words)

Author(s): Olbrycht, Marek
PHRAATES IV (r. 37-3/2 BCE), king of Parthia, son of Orodes II (r. 57-37 BCE) and grandson of Phraates III (r. 70-57 BCE). He began his reign with the murder of his father, son, and brothers. In the alliance with Artavasdes of Atropatene (q.v.; see also AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History), Phraates IV gained a victory over Mark Antony (q.v.) in 36 BCE. He faced several rebellions against his rule. In external policy, he was a successful opponent of the emperor Augustus. Accession and civil war in Parthia . After the death of the Parthian king Pacorus I (63-38 BCE), son of Orodes …
Date: 2021-03-18


(6,982 words)

Author(s): Olbrycht, Marek
ORODES II  (r. 58/57-37 BCE), king of Parthia, son of Phraates III (r. 70-57 BCE), and father of Phraates IV (q.v.). During his reign, the empire of the Arsacids (q.v.) reached the zenith of its power and scored significant victories against Rome. Orodes II versus Mithradates III. In 58/57 BCE, the Parthian king Phraates III was murdered by his sons Orodes (Parth. wrwd, read as Worōd by Schmitt, no. 573, or Wirōd/Wirōy by Livshits, nos. 676-677) and Mithradates III (Debevoise, pp. 76-120; Bivar, 1983a, pp. 48-56; Karras-Klapproth, pp. 104-109; Wolski, 1993…
Date: 2021-03-18


(4,703 words)

Author(s): Marek Jan Olbrycht
distinguished Polish historian, whose research has had an enduring effect on the study of ancient Iranian history. WOLSKI, JÓZEF (b. Tarnów, Poland, 19 March 1910; d. Kraków, 2 October 2008), distinguished Polish historian, whose research has had an enduring effect on the study of ancient Iranian history. He completed the famed King Jan III Sobieski gymnasium in Kraków. After graduating from Jagiellonian University (1928-32), he became an assistant of Prof. Ludwik Piotrowicz who had studied classical philology at…
Date: 2013-06-26