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Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Cypselides

(373 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Κυψελίδαι; Kypselídai). Dynasty of the Corinthian tyrant  Cypselus [2], who followed the  Bacchiadae around the mid 7th cent. BC. The rule of the C. (Cypselus,  Periander,  Psammetichus) was limited (probably post-event) by the Delphic oracle to Cypselus and his sons, and was supposed to end with the generation of his grandchildren (Hdt. 5,92e). According to Aristotle (Pol. 1315b 11ff.), the  tyrannis of the C. was the second longest lasting in Greece (73 1/2 years). He explains this long duration with Cypselus' popularity (cf. also Nicolaus of Dam…

Laarchus

(114 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Λάαρχος; Láarchos; Hdt.: Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Battus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. fought together with unnamed brothers over their succession against their brother Arcesilaus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. founded Barce, about 100 km to the west. At the same time he incited the Libyan tribes to rebel against Cyrene. He murdered Arcesilaus around 560/550 BC after the lat ter's defeat at Leucon in Libya and was probably murdered by Arcesilaus's wife Eryxo while attempting to become his successor (Hdt. 4,160). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei …

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Tyrannicide

(313 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (τυραννοκτονία/ tyrannoktonía; Latin tyrannicidium). Term coined in Hellenistic and Roman rhetoric, historiography and law (initially Greek, Diod. Sic. 16,14,1, Latin Sen. Controv. 4,7). The term goes back to the public veneration of the tyrannicides in Athens (Harmodius [1], Aristogiton [1]). Their deed quickly became a democratic topos (Thuc. 1,20; 6,53,3-6,54,1). Injustice, lawlessness and despotism (Pl. Plt. 291e; Pl. Resp. 9,571-586) justified tyrannicide (Pl. Prt. 322d) and the…

Cleisthenes

(764 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(Κλεισθένης; Kleisthénōs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon c. 600-570 BC Tyrant of Sicyon ( c. 600-570 BC), son of Aristonymus, from the family of Orthagoras, whose tyranny lasted about 100 years ( c. 665-565 BC.; Aristot. Pol. 1315b 11ff.; cf. Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 61). During the war with Argus C. pursued an anti-Argive domestic ideology, including prohibition of the presentation of the Homeric epics because they favoured Argos. The Argive hero  Adrastus [1] was replaced by the Theban hero  Melanippus (Hdt. 5,6…

Iophon

(262 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἰοφῶν; Iophôn) [German version] [1] Son of Peisistratus from his second marriage Son of  Peisistratus from his second marriage to the Argive Timonassa, the daughter of Gorgilus and widow of the  Cypselid Archinus of Ambracia. In contrast to his brother  Hegesistratus [1], only I.'s name has survived ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,3; Plut. Cato maior 24,8; Hdt. 5,94f.). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography L. de Libero, Die Archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 88 Traill, PAA 537360. [German version] [2] Athenian tragedian, 5th cent. BC Athenian tragedian (TrGF I 22), a son of  Sophocl…

Phye

(117 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φύη; Phýē). Daughter of Socrates from the Paeania deme. As Peisistratus [4] attempted his second seizure of power in 546/5 BC, she was, on acount of her tall stature ( c. 1·80 m), dressed with weapons as the goddess Athena and carried on a chariot, as a sign that the goddess was showing him the way (Hdt. 1,60; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 14). This is related in the form of a legend as early as Herodotus. In later versions P. becomes a Thracian garland seller. P. is also given as the name of the wife of  Hipparchus [1] (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 15). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Ber…

Pheretima

(173 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φερετίμα; Pheretíma). Queen of Cyrene, wife of Battus [3] III the Lame, mother of Arcesilaus [3] III. After Arcesilaus reclaimed royal rights and in about 518 BC was banished, P. fled to Euelthon in Salamis in Cyprus and demanded military assistance. After the reconquest of Cyrene by her son and his flight to Barke she ruled as queen with a seat on the council. After Arcesilaus' murder in Barke she avenged him, helped by the Egyptian satrap Aryandes, with a campaign against the ci…

Tyndarion

(78 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τυνδάριον; Tyndárion). Tyrant of Tauromenium, who together with other Sicilian Greeks asked Pyrrhus [3] to intervene against the power ambitions of the Carthaginians on the island in 279 BC. In 278 he readily received Pyrrhus when he landed at Tauromenium and was, as the latter's ally, confirmed in his power (Diod. 22,2,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 22; Paus. 1,12,5;  Just. Epit. 18,2,11). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, vol. 1, 1967, 459; 461; 732.

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Micythus

(130 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Μίκυθος; Míkythos). Son of Chirus, from the house of the tyrant Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium. For nine years after Anaxilaus' death around 476 BC he was governor (ἐπίτροπος; epítropos) of Rhegium for his sons who were not legally of age (Hdt. 7, 170; Iust. 4,2,5; Diod. 11,48ff.). M. helped the people of Tarentum against the tribes of the Iapyges but suffered huge losses to his army. Probably after an intervention of Hieron [1] of Syracuse he handed over control to Anaxilaus' sons and went to Tegea in Arcadia. F…

Aeaces

(136 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Αἰάκης; Aiákēs). [German version] [1] Father of the tyrants  Polycrates and  Syloson of Samos (6th cent BC) Father of the tyrants  Polycrates and  Syloson of Samos (Hdt. 3,39). His identification with A., son of Brychon, erector of a statue in the Heraeum, is doubtful. Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Tyrant of  Samos (beginning of 5th cent, BC) Grandson of the foregoing, son of Syloson. Tyrant of  Samos and vassal of Darius (Hdt. 4,138). Deprived of his power in the Ionian rebellion, by order of the Persians he convinced several Samia…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 129; 593  T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks, 1948, 66-68  N. Luraghi, Tirannidi archaiche in Sicilia e Magna Grecia, 1994, 11-20. [German version] [2] Trierarch at Salamis In 480, at the battle of Salamis, P. …

Periander

(574 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Περίανδρος/ Períandros, Lat. Periander). Around 655/627 BC, P. succeeded his father  Cypselus [2] as tyrant of Corinth. According to the summary records from antiquity, he ruled for about 40 years (Aristot. Pol. 5,12,1315b 25).  His wife was Melissa, the daughter of Procles, the tyrant of Epidauros; apart from a daughter, he had with her the sons Cypselus, who was mentally retarded, and Lycophron [1]. The other sons, Evagoras, Gorgus, and Nicolaus, he had with concubines (Hdt. 3,5…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Troy

(10,863 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pistorius, Kerstin
Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Cobet, Justus (Essen) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Homer sets his tale of the wrath of Achilles and the battle for Troy (T.) in a memorial landscape whose reality was entirely due to the epic and the history of its reception. Troy was placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998, 130 years after Heinrich Schliemann first appeared on the site (fig. 1). Whoever "henceforth" sails the Hellespont by ship will gaze at the funeral mounds of the heroes, visible from afar, as we read in the Iliad (7,85-91 with reference to Ajax) and the Ody…

Aristomachus

(424 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀριστόμαχος; Aristómachos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, son of Cleodaeus (Hdt. 6,52; Apollod. 2,171; Paus. 2,7,6). His attempt to conquer the Peloponnese failed because an oracle was misunderstood. He fell in the battle and the country was conquered by his sons Temenus, Cresphontes and (in the Spartan version) Aristodemus [1] (Hyg. Fab. 124. 137) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Healing hero in Rhamnus Healing hero in Rhamnus. His sanctuary lies on a hill south-west of the Rhamnus Acropolis. He …
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