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Phalaris

(299 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φάλαρις; Phálaris). Tyrant of Acragas, son of Leodamas of Rhodes; ruled the city, which was founded c. 580 BC, from c. 570-555 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 5,10, 1310b 28) counts him among those tyrants who achieved power by virtue of their high official status ( ek tōn timôn). Elsewhere (Aristot. Rh. 2,20,1393b 5-8), Aristotle cites a fable of Stesichorus, according to which P. first held the office of a strategos with dictatorial powers ( stratēgós autokrátōr). According to Polyaenus, Strat. 5,1,1, on the other hand, P. seized power while treasurer during the…

Telys

(104 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τῆλυς; Têlys). King or tyrant (Hdt. 5,44,47; Diod. Sic. 12,9,2) in proverbially rich Sybaris [4] c. 510 BC. Probably supported by the dêmos, he banished the 500 richest citizens of the city and confiscated their wealth. After these found shelter in Croton, T. attacked the city, in spite of the warnings of the seer Callias of Elis. After the Crotonians were victorious Sybaris was razed to the ground and T. was killed by his followers (Heraclid. Pont. fr. 49 Wehrli). The morally coloured tradition derives from the Crotonians. Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. B…

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Cleisthenes

(764 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(Κλεισθένης; Kleisthénōs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon c. 600-570 BC Tyrant of Sicyon ( c. 600-570 BC), son of Aristonymus, from the family of Orthagoras, whose tyranny lasted about 100 years ( c. 665-565 BC.; Aristot. Pol. 1315b 11ff.; cf. Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 61). During the war with Argus C. pursued an anti-Argive domestic ideology, including prohibition of the presentation of the Homeric epics because they favoured Argos. The Argive hero  Adrastus [1] was replaced by the Theban hero  Melanippus (Hdt. 5,6…

Iophon

(262 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἰοφῶν; Iophôn) [German version] [1] Son of Peisistratus from his second marriage Son of  Peisistratus from his second marriage to the Argive Timonassa, the daughter of Gorgilus and widow of the  Cypselid Archinus of Ambracia. In contrast to his brother  Hegesistratus [1], only I.'s name has survived ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,3; Plut. Cato maior 24,8; Hdt. 5,94f.). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography L. de Libero, Die Archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 88 Traill, PAA 537360. [German version] [2] Athenian tragedian, 5th cent. BC Athenian tragedian (TrGF I 22), a son of  Sophocl…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Kypselos

(248 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basel) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Aipytos Sohn des Aipytos [2], der über Arkadien herrscht, als die Herakleiden wieder versuchen, in die Peloponnes einzudringen. Er gibt dem Herakleiden und Messenerkönig Kresphontes seine Tochter Merope zur Frau und wird so vom Einfall verschont (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basel) [English version] [2] Tyrann von Korinth, wohl 657-627 v. Chr. Tyrann von Korinth (wohl 657-627 v.Chr.), Sohn des Eëtion. Er löste die Herrschaft der Bakchiadai, einer Gruppe herrschender Aristokraten, ab und etablierte die …

Kleisthenes

(758 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(Κλεισθένης). [English version] [1] Tyrann von Sikyon ca. 600-570 v. Chr. Tyrann von Sikyon (ca. 600-570 v.Chr.), Sohn des Aristonymos, aus der Familie des Orthagoras, deren Tyrannis etwa 100 Jahre währte (ca. 665-565 v.Chr.; Aristot. pol. 1315b 11ff.; vgl. Nikolaos von Damaskos FGrH 90 F 61). Im Krieg mit Argos verfolgte K. eine antiargivische innenpolit. Ideologie. Er verbot den Vortrag der homer. Epen, da diese Argos bevorzugten. Der argivische Heros Adrastos [1] wurde, gegen den Rat Delphis, durch den …

Korynephoroi

(140 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(κορυνηφόροι, “Keulenträger”). [English version] [1] Leibwache des Peisistratos Leibwache, die dem Peisistratos zum Schutz vor angeblicher Bedrohung durch seine Gegner vom athenischen Volk gewährt wurde. Er nutzte sie, um die Akropolis zu besetzen (Hdt. 1,59). Solon habe das Streben nach der Tyrannis erkannt und sich als einziger gegen die Leibwache ausgesprochen ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 14,2; Plut. Solon 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [English version] [2] Leibwache des Tyrannen von Sikyon Nach später Überl. Leibwache des Tyrannen von Sikyon (Poll. 3,83; Steph. B…

Battos

(588 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Princeton)
(Βάττος). [English version] [1] B.I. König von Kyrene um 630 v. Chr. Sohn des Polymnestos aus dem G…

Leaina

(160 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λέαινα). [English version] [1] Hetäre des Aristogeiton [1], 6. Jh. v. Chr. Legendäre Hetäre des Aristogeiton [1]. Nach der Ermordung des Hipparchos [1] soll Hippias [1] sie vergewaltigt und getötet haben (Paus. 1,23,1f.; Plut. mor. 505E; Athen. 596f; Cic. fr. 8,12 Merguet). Nach anderer Version biß sie sich bei der Folterung durch Hippias die Zunge ab, um nichts über den Geliebten auszusagen (Polyain. 8,45). Zu ihrem Andenken soll eine bronzene Löwin aufgestellt worden sein. Der Name der Heldin (“Löwin”) u…

Iophon

(238 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἰοφῶν) [English version] [1] Sohn des Peisistratos aus zweiter Ehe Sohn des Peisistratos aus zweiter Ehe mit der Argiverin Timonassa, Tochter des Gorgilos und Witwe des Kypseliden Archinos von Ambrakia. Von I. ist im Gegensatz zu seinem Bruder Hegesistratos [1] nur der Name überliefert ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,3; Plut. Cato maior 24,8; Hdt. 5,94f.). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography L. de Libero, Die Archaische Tyrannis, 1996, 88  Traill, PAA 537360. [English version] [2] att. Tragiker, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Tragiker aus Athen (TrGF I 22), Sohn des Sophokles; verfaßte 50…

Telestes

(160 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Τελέστης; Teléstēs). [German version] [1] Last king of Corinth According to a list of kings in Diod. 7,9,2-5, T. was the last king of Corinth. The name's apt meaning ( télos = 'end') casts doubt on his historicity. His murder was, according to tradition, closely followed by the Bacchiadae (Paus. 2,4,4). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, …

Korynephoroi

(157 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(κορυνηφόροι; korynēphóroi, ‘mace-bearers’). [German version] [1] Bodyguards of Peistratus Bodyguards who were to protect Peisistratus against an alleged threat from his opponents. They were granted to him by the Athenian people. He used them to occupy the acropolis (Hdt. 1,59). Solon supposedly recognized this striving for tyranny and he was the only …

Thrasybulus

(1,055 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Θρασύβουλος/ Thrasýboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Miletus [2], ca. 600 BC Prýtanis or aisymnḗtēs, then tyrant (Aristot. Pol. 1305a 16-18) of Miletus [2], at the time of its greatest prosperity around the turn of the 7th to the 6th cent. BC; a contemporary of Thales (Diog. Laert. 1,27). According to Herodotus, T. was able to end a twelve-year war against the Lydian kings Sadyattes [2] and Alyattes (Hdt. 1,17-23; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,47) by a trick (Hdt. 1,22: pretended wealth), and to persuade Alyatte…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus …

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography …

Troy

(10,863 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pistorius, Kerstin
Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Cobet, Justus (Essen) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Homer sets his tale of the wrath of Achilles and the battle for Troy (T.) in a memorial landscape whose reality was entirely due to the epic and the history of its reception. Troy was placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998, 130 years after Heinrich Schliemann first appeared on the site (fig. 1). Whoever "henceforth" sails the Hellespont by ship will gaze at the funeral mounds of the heroes, visible from afar, as we read in the Iliad (7,85-91 with reference to Ajax) and the
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