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Phye

(117 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φύη; Phýē). Daughter of Socrates from the Paeania deme. As Peisistratus [4] attempted his second seizure of power in 546/5 BC, she was, on acount of her tall stature ( c. 1·80 m), dressed with weapons as the goddess Athena and carried on a chariot, as a sign that the goddess was showing him the way (Hdt. 1,60; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 14). This is related in the form of a legend as early as Herodotus. In later versions P. becomes a Thracian garland seller. P. is also given as the name of the wife of  Hipparchus [1] (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 15). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Ber…

Telys

(104 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τῆλυς; Têlys). King or tyrant (Hdt. 5,44,47; Diod. Sic. 12,9,2) in proverbially rich Sybaris [4] c. 510 BC. Probably supported by the dêmos, he banished the 500 richest citizens of the city and confiscated their wealth. After these found shelter in Croton, T. attacked the city, in spite of the warnings of the seer Callias of Elis. After the Crotonians were victorious Sybaris was razed to the ground and T. was killed by his followers (Heraclid. Pont. fr. 49 Wehrli). The morally coloured tradition derives from the Crotonians. Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. B…

Timophanes

(120 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τιμοφάνης/ Timophánēs). Son of Timodemus and Demarete or Demariste, elder brother of Timoleon. In 366 BC, supported by his command of 400 mercenaries and the urban population, he elevated himself to tyrant of Corinth. When his rule degenerated into arbitrariness, Timoleon and others from the circle of his hetairía [2] tried, unsuccessfully, to convince him to give up his position of power. With the assent of Timoleon and the oligarchs of Corinth, T. was assassinated by his companions (Plut. Timoleon 4,5-8; Plut. Mor. 808a; Tim…

Tyrannicide

(313 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (τυραννοκτονία/ tyrannoktonía; Latin tyrannicidium). Term coined in Hellenistic and Roman rhetoric, historiography and law (initially Greek, Diod. Sic. 16,14,1, Latin Sen. Controv. 4,7). The term goes back to the public veneration of the tyrannicides in Athens (Harmodius [1], Aristogiton [1]). Their deed quickly became a democratic topos (Thuc. 1,20; 6,53,3-6,54,1). Injustice, lawlessness and despotism (Pl. Plt. 291e; Pl. Resp. 9,571-586) justified tyrannicide (Pl. Prt. 322d) and the…

Battiads

(161 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Βαττιάδαι; Battiádai). Designation for the dynasty of Cyrene that lasted for eight generations; four kings by the name of  Battus alternated with four others by the name of  Arcesilaus (Hdt. 4,159). The eponym is Battus I (since c. 630 in Cyrene). The king's privileges mentioned by Herodotus (4,161) are unusual. Since  Arcesilaus II ( c. 560), we find the typical aristocratic divisions in Cyrene which led to tyrannis in Greek cities of that time. The successors either tried to dominate or pushed for agreement. In order to stay in power, the king…

Phalaris

(299 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φάλαρις; Phálaris). Tyrant of Acragas, son of Leodamas of Rhodes; ruled the city, which was founded c. 580 BC, from c. 570-555 BC. Aristotle (Pol. 5,10, 1310b 28) counts him among those tyrants who achieved power by virtue of their high official status ( ek tōn timôn). Elsewhere (Aristot. Rh. 2,20,1393b 5-8), Aristotle cites a fable of Stesichorus, according to which P. first held the office of a strategos with dictatorial powers ( stratēgós autokrátōr). According to Polyaenus, Strat. 5,1,1, on the other hand, P. seized power while treasurer during the…

Cypselides

(373 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Κυψελίδαι; Kypselídai). Dynasty of the Corinthian tyrant  Cypselus [2], who followed the  Bacchiadae around the mid 7th cent. BC. The rule of the C. (Cypselus,  Periander,  Psammetichus) was limited (probably post-event) by the Delphic oracle to Cypselus and his sons, and was supposed to end with the generation of his grandchildren (Hdt. 5,92e). According to Aristotle (Pol. 1315b 11ff.), the  tyrannis of the C. was the second longest lasting in Greece (73 1/2 years). He explains this long duration with Cypselus' popularity (cf. also Nicolaus of Dam…

Aeaces

(136 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Αἰάκης; Aiákēs). [German version] [1] Father of the tyrants  Polycrates and  Syloson of Samos (6th cent BC) Father of the tyrants  Polycrates and  Syloson of Samos (Hdt. 3,39). His identification with A., son of Brychon, erector of a statue in the Heraeum, is doubtful. Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Tyrant of  Samos (beginning of 5th cent, BC) Grandson of the foregoing, son of Syloson. Tyrant of  Samos and vassal of Darius (Hdt. 4,138). Deprived of his power in the Ionian rebellion, by order of the Persians he convinced several Samia…

Tyndarion

(78 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Τυνδάριον; Tyndárion). Tyrant of Tauromenium, who together with other Sicilian Greeks asked Pyrrhus [3] to intervene against the power ambitions of the Carthaginians on the island in 279 BC. In 278 he readily received Pyrrhus when he landed at Tauromenium and was, as the latter's ally, confirmed in his power (Diod. 22,2,1; Plut. Pyrrhus 22; Paus. 1,12,5;  Just. Epit. 18,2,11). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, vol. 1, 1967, 459; 461; 732.

Micythus

(130 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Μίκυθος; Míkythos). Son of Chirus, from the house of the tyrant Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium. For nine years after Anaxilaus' death around 476 BC he was governor (ἐπίτροπος; epítropos) of Rhegium for his sons who were not legally of age (Hdt. 7, 170; Iust. 4,2,5; Diod. 11,48ff.). M. helped the people of Tarentum against the tribes of the Iapyges but suffered huge losses to his army. Probably after an intervention of Hieron [1] of Syracuse he handed over control to Anaxilaus' sons and went to Tegea in Arcadia. F…

Periander

(574 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Περίανδρος/ Períandros, Lat. Periander). Around 655/627 BC, P. succeeded his father  Cypselus [2] as tyrant of Corinth. According to the summary records from antiquity, he ruled for about 40 years (Aristot. Pol. 5,12,1315b 25).  His wife was Melissa, the daughter of Procles, the tyrant of Epidauros; apart from a daughter, he had with her the sons Cypselus, who was mentally retarded, and Lycophron [1]. The other sons, Evagoras, Gorgus, and Nicolaus, he had with concubines (Hdt. 3,5…

Pheretima

(173 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Φερετίμα; Pheretíma). Queen of Cyrene, wife of Battus [3] III the Lame, mother of Arcesilaus [3] III. After Arcesilaus reclaimed royal rights and in about 518 BC was banished, P. fled to Euelthon in Salamis in Cyprus and demanded military assistance. After the reconquest of Cyrene by her son and his flight to Barke she ruled as queen with a seat on the council. After Arcesilaus' murder in Barke she avenged him, helped by the Egyptian satrap Aryandes, with a campaign against the ci…

Laarchus

(114 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[German version] (Λάαρχος; Láarchos; Hdt.: Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Battus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. fought together with unnamed brothers over their succession against their brother Arcesilaus [2] II. of Cyrene. L. founded Barce, about 100 km to the west. At the same time he incited the Libyan tribes to rebel against Cyrene. He murdered Arcesilaus around 560/550 BC after the lat ter's defeat at Leucon in Libya and was probably murdered by Arcesilaus's wife Eryxo while attempting to become his successor (Hdt. 4,160). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei …

Kypseliden

(341 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Κυψελίδαι). Geschlecht des korinth. Tyrannen Kypselos [2], das die Herrschaft der Bakchiadai um die Mitte des 7. Jh.v.Chr. ablöste. Die Regierung der K. (Kypselos, Periandros, Psammetichos) wurde vom delphischen Orakel (wohl im nachhinein) auf Kypselos und seine Söhne begrenzt; sie sollte in der Enkelgeneration enden (Hdt. 5,92e). Nach Aristoteles (pol. 1315b 11ff.) war die Tyrannis der K. die zweitlängste in Griechenland (73 1/2 J.). Er begründet diese Dauer mit der Volkstümlichkeit des Kypselos (vgl. auch Nikolaos von Damaskos FGrH 90…

Battiaden

(140 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Βαττιάδαι). Bezeichnung für die acht Generationen umfassende Dynastie von Kyrene; vier Könige mit Namen Battos alternieren mit vier namens Arkesilaos (Hdt. 4,159). Der Eponym ist Battos I. (seit ca. 630 in Kyrene). Ungewöhnlich sind die von Herodot (4,161) erwähnten Privilegien des Königs. Seit Arkesilaos II. (ca. 560) zeigen sich in Kyrene die typischen aristokratischen Parteiungen, die in den griech. Städten jener Zeit zur Tyrannis führen. Das Verhalten der Nachfolger wechselt…

Phye

(101 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Φύη). Tochter des Sokrates aus dem Demos Paiania. Sie wurde wegen ihrer großen Gestalt (ca. 1,80 m) bei der zweiten Machtergreifung des Peisistratos [4] 546/5 v.Chr. als Göttin Athene in Waffen gekleidet auf einem Wagen mitgeführt, zum Zeichen, daß die Göttin ihm den Weg weise (Hdt. 1,60; Aristot. Ath. pol. 14). Schon Herodot erzählt dies in Form einer Legende. In späteren Versionen wird Ph. zu einer thrakischen Kranzverkäuferin. Der Name Ph. ist auch für die Ehefrau des Hipparchos [1] überl. (Kleidemos FGrH 323 F 15). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Be…

Mikythos

(108 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Μίκυθος). Sohn des Choiros, aus dem Hause des Tyrannen Anaxilaos [1] von Rhegion, war nach dessen Tod um 476 v.Chr. für dessen minderjährige Söhne neun Jahre Statthalter (ἐπίτροπος) von Rhegion (Hdt. 7, 170; Iust. 4,2,5; Diod. 11,48ff.). M. leistete den Tarentinern unter großen Verlusten Waffenhilfe gegen die iapygischen Stämme. Wahrscheinlich auf Intervention des Hieron [1] von Syrakus übergab er die Herrschaft den Söhnen des Anaxilaos und ging nach Tegea in Arkadien. Von dort …

Aiakes

(124 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Αἰάκης). [English version] [1] Vater des Tyrannen Polykrates von Samos (6. Jh. v. Chr.) Vater der Tyrannen Polykrates und Syloson von Samos (Hdt. 3,39). Seine Identität mit A., Sohn des Brychon, Stifter einer Statue im Heraion, ist zweifelhaft. Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [English version] [2] Tyrann von Samos (Anf. 5. Jh. v. Chr.) Enkel des vorigen, Sohn des Syloson. Tyrann von Samos und Vasall des Dareios (Hdt. 4,138). Im ion. Aufstand entmachtet, überredete er im Auftrag der Perser mehrere samische Feldherrn, vor der Seeschlacht bei Lade (494…

Pheretima

(156 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Φερετίμα). Königin von Kyrene, Frau des Battos [3] III. des Lahmen, Mutter des Arkesilaos [3] III. Nachdem dieser die Königsrechte zurückforderte und um 518 v.Chr. vertrieben wurde, floh Ph. zu Euelthon nach Salamis auf Kypros und forderte mil. Beistand. Nach der Wiedereroberung Kyrenes durch ihren Sohn und dessen Flucht nach Barke herrschte sie als Königin mit Sitz im Rat. Nach Arkesilaos' Ermordung in Barke rächte sie ihn in einem Feldzug gegen die Stadt mit Hilfe des äg. Satr…

Laarchos

(102 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
[English version] (Λάαρχος; Hdt.: Λέαρχος). Sohn des Battos [2] II. von Kyrene. L. kämpfte zusammen mit ungenannten Brüdern um dessen Nachfolge gegen den Bruder Arkesilaos [2] II. von Kyrene. L. gründete das etwa 100 km westl. gelegene Barke und stachelte gleichzeitig die libyschen Stämme zum Aufstand gegen Kyrene an. Er ermordete Arkesilaos um 560/550 v.Chr. nach dessen Niederlage bei Leukon in Libyen und wurde wahrscheinlich beim Versuch, dessen Nachfolge anzutreten, von dessen Gattin Eryxo ermordet (Hdt. 4,160). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Ty…
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