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Canitas

(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.

Sparadocus

(69 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σπαράδοκος; Sparádokos). Brother of king  Sitalces [1] of Thrace and father of his successor Seuthes [1] (Thuc. 2,101,5; 4,101,5). His position in the Odrysae dynasty is debatable; he may have succeeded to Teres as ruler in southwestern Thrace. S. was the first of the Odrysae to mint silver coins of various face values. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography U. Peter, Die Münzen der thrakischen Dynasten (5.-3. Jh. v. Chr.), 1997, 62-75.

Cetriporis

(124 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Κετρίπορις; Ketríporis). Thracian king, who followed his father  Berisades together with his brothers as rulers of western Thrace. They were supported by the Greek mercenary leader  Athenodorus [1] (Dem. Or. 23,10) and in 356 BC concluded -- together with Lyppeus of Paeonia and Grabus of Illyria -- an alliance with Athens against  Philippus II (IG II/III2 127; Syll.3 1, 196; StV 309; Tod 157) [1. 27]. However, the coalition was unsuccessful and C. became a vassal of the Macedonian king (Diod. Sic. 16,22,3). C. issued very beautiful b…

Rabocentus

(39 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Prince of the rebellious Bessi, who was assassinated in 57 BC by the Macedonian governor L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus at the command of king Cotys [I 5] of Thrace (Cic. Pis. 84). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)

Amadocus

(162 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ἀμάδοκος; Amádokos, on coins ΑΜΑΤΟΚΟΣ; AMATOKOS). [German version] [1] see Medocus The elder A. named by Isocrates (or. 5,6) is known as  Medocus (see there), Metocus, Amedocus, Amadocus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] Odrysian ruler (after 358 AD) Odrysian ruler, one of the successors of  Cotys I, who in 358 BC received the middle part of the kingdom (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 170; 173 [1. 303]). His brothers-in-law, Simon and Bianor, honorary citizen of Athens, helped A. after 354 in conflict with  Cersebleptes as mercenary commander…

Maesades

(58 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαισάδης; Maisádēs). Odrysian prince who at the end of the 4th cent. BC, under the supreme rule of Seuthes I, reigned over the regions of the Melandites, Thynians and Tranipsians, the so-called Thracian delta. After his death his son Seuthes II was brought up by Medocus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,5,1). Odrysae Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)

Miltocythes

(156 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Μιλτοκύθης; Miltokýthēs). [German version] [1] Leader of Thracian mercenaries at the Battle of Cunaxa, 401 BC Thracian leader of mercenaries under Cyrus [3] the Younger, defected to the side of the Great King Artaxerxes [2] II after the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC (Xen. an. 2,2,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] Thracian aristocrat, around 362 BC Thracian aristocrat, treasurer (?) of Cotys [I 1] I, with whom he broke around 362 BC, seizing the Hieron oros [1]. M. sought the aid of Athens, but the diplomatic skill of Cotys I thwarted the co…

Bergaeus

(83 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Thracian dynast at the end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC. Known only through his bronze and silver minting with the markings ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ and ΒΕΡΓ (also interpreted as the name of a city or an official). Parallels with Thasian coin designs suggest a location in the south-west of Thrace by the lower course of the Nestus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283 J. Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.

Scilurus

(126 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκίλουρος/ Skílouros). King in the second half of the 2nd century BC of the Scythian-Taurian state in Crimea with capital Neapolis (modern Simferopol). His coins suggest a temporary protectorate over Olbia ([2]; contra [1. 146-148]). When S. devastated the chṓra of Chersonesus [2], its inhabitants called on Mithridates [6]. One of S.' many sons, Palacus, fought Mithridates' general Diophantus [2] without success (Str. 7,4,3 and 7; 7,3,17; Syll.3 709 = IOSPE 2, 352; SEG 39, 692). His daughter Senamotis was married to a Bosporan Greek ([3]; SEG 37, 674). Scythae II. Pet…

Berisades

(92 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρισάδης; Bērisádēs). Thracian dynast who, together with Amadocus, forced Cersobleptes to divide up the Odrysian kingdom in 359-357 BC after the death of  Cotys I. He received the western part bordering Macedonia. His brother-in-law, the Athenian mercenary commander  Athenodorus, assisted him (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 10; 170; 173-174; Str. 7, fr. 47; StV 303). In 358/7 Philip II occupied Crenides, which lay in B.'s territory. B.'s sons succeeded him in power in 357/6. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography E. Badian, Philip II and Thrace, in: Pulpudeva…

Koson

(108 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Gold coins with the legend ΚΟΣΩΝ, known since the Renaissance, found only in Transylvania (Romania); they elicit varying interpretations to the present day. Presumably they are to be attributed to a Geto-Dacian king Koson/Cotiso in the second half of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Suet. Aug. 63,2; Flor. Epit. 2,28). Some doubt the authenticity of the coins [2]. PIR2 C 1536; 1544. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 O. Iliescu, Sur les monnaies d'or à la légende ΚΟΣΩΝ, in: Quaderni Ticinesi 19, 1990, 185-214 2 C. Preda, Ein neuer Vorschlag zur Chronologie der K.-Münzen, in: U. Pet…

Cavarus, Cauarus

(157 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Καύαρος; Kaúaros). Last king of the Celtic realm in East Thrace with capital in  Tyle in the late 3rd cent. BC (Pol. 4,46,4). Numerous finds of bronze coins, of which several nominals and types were issued, caused a renewed discussion of the location and nature of his kingdom in recent research [1. 7-15; 2]. C.'s silver coins were minted in  Cabyle [3]. Polybius praised C.'s achievements: he safeguarded merchant shipping in the Black Sea, supported Byzantium in 220 BC in a war against Rhodes and effected a peace (Pol. 4,52,1-2; 8,22). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1…

Scyles

(114 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκύλης/ Ský l ēs). Scythian King around the mid 5th cent. BC, son of a Greek woman from Istros and of Ariapeithes whose realm he inherited. However, due to his Greek way of life, S. was forced to flee to Sitalces [1] who turned him over to S.' half-brother Octamasades, who had S. put to death (Hdt. 4,78-80). The name of S. has been transmitted on a gold ring. Several bronze emissions from Niconia are attributed to S. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography V. A. Anochin, Die Münzen der skythischen Könige, in: Hamburger Beitrage zur Archäologie 18, 1991, 141-150 (esp. 142-144)  F.…

Polemocratia

(71 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολεμοκρατεία/ Polemokrateía, also Πολεμοκρατία/ Polemokratía). Thracian queen, wife of Sadalas II and mother of Cotys [I 6] (IGR I 775); in 43 BC, she handed over the family fortune to M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in order to rescue Cotys and have his kingdom restored to him (App. B Civ. 4,75,319-320). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network, in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 186-211, esp. 192.

Hegesipyle

(47 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡγησιπύλη; Hēgēsipýlē). Daughter of King Olorus of Thrace. Married  Miltiades [2] in c. 515-513 BC and bore him a child  Cimon (Hdt. 6,39,2; Plut. Cimon 4,1). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography C. Feretto, Milziade ed Egesipile. Un matrimonio d'interesse, in: Serta Historica Antiqua [1], 1986, 77-83.

Mostis

(106 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μόστις/ Móstis). King, who probably ruled the Caeni in southeastern Thrace in the last quarter of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st cent. BC (earlier dating refuted). He is known only through tetradrachmai attesting to a 38 year reign, bronze coins and two inscriptions (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 and XXXVII 602; [3. 190]). He may have been a confederate of Mithradates [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i…

Ateas

(141 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτέας; Atéas; Lat. Atheas, on silver coins ΑΤΑΙΟΣ). Scythian king, who in 339 BC at an age of more than 90 years fell in battle against the Macedonian Philip II near the Ister (Lucian Macr. 12,10). Designated by Strabo (7,3,18) as ruler over large sections of the Barbarians on the northern coast of the Black Sea, but the extent of his power is disputed. The minting of A. in Callatis and the conflicts with the  Triballi (Frontin. Strat. 2,4,20; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,44,1), Byzantium (C…

Ariapeithes

(85 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριαπείθης; Ariapeíthēs). King of the Scythian, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC, murdered by Spargapeithes, the king of the Agathyrsi. He had three sons from his three marriages: with the daughter of the Thracian ruler Teres  Octamasades, with a Greek woman from Histria  Scyles and with the Scythian woman Opoea Oricus. Thymnes, the confidant of A., was an oral source of Herodotes (Hdt. 4,76-80). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography J. R. Gardiner-Garden, Dareios' Scythian Expedition and its Aftermath, in: Klio 69, 1987, 326-350, 345-349.

Thagimasades

(45 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Θαγιμασάδης/ Thagimasádēs, also Θαγιμασάδας/ Thagimasádas). Presumed ancestor and protector of the 'Royal' Scythae (Scythae II.); they alone worshipped T. as a horse and water deity, which was identified with the Greek Poseidon (Hdt. 4,59). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography S. S. Bessonova, Religioznye predstavlenija skifov, 1983, 50-53.

Teres

(234 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Τήρης; Tḗrēs). Popular Thracian (ruler's) name. [German version] [1] T. (I) The first powerful Thracian king, who, after the retreat of the Persians in the first half of the 5th cent. BC, obtained for the Odrysae dominion over the largest part of Thrace (Thuc. 2,29). In the southeast he advanced presumably as far as the Propontis  (cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22), in the north as far as the Danube. His daughter married king Ariapeithes of the Scythae (Hdt. 4,80). He lived 92 years (Theop. FGrH 115, fr. 310) and was …
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