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Ostrakismos

(836 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ὀστρακισμός, 'trial by sherds' from óstrakon , pl. óstraka, 'pottery sherd'). A procedure in Athens that permitted expulsion of a man from the country for ten years without having been convicted of an offence, but without confiscating his property. According to the (Pseudo-) Aristotelian Athēnaíōn Politeía (22,1; 22,3), ostracism was introduced by Cleisthenes [2] (508/7 BC), but not applied until 488/7. A fragment by Androtion (FGrH 324 F 6) reports that ostracism had been established immediately before its first applicatio…

Apodektai

(87 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀποδέκται; apodéktai, ‘receivers’). A ten-man board of officials in Athens, with members chosen by lot from each of the ten phylai. They were charged by the boule with receiving state funds and remitting them to the central treasury in the 5th cent. BC, and apportioning them to various spending authorities ( merizein) in the 4th, following routine procedures. They had their own powers of jurisdiction towards tax farmers in cases of up to 10 drachmae (Arist. Ath. Pol. 47,5-48,2; 52,3). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)

Mastroi

(148 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (μαστροί/ mastroí, ‘searchers’, ‘trackers’) is the name given in some Greek towns to official accountants with functions similar to those of the eúthynoi ( eúthynai ) or logistaí (e.g. Delphi: Syll.3 672; Pallene: Aristot. fr. 657 Rose). The accounting process is called mastráa/mastreía, e.g. in Elis (IvOl 2 = Buck 61) and Messenia (IG V 1, 1433,15-16), the person liable to account, hypómastros, e.g. in Messenia (IG V 1, 1390 = Syll.3 736,51,58). After the synoikismos of Rhodes, the councils of the three original towns of Ialysus, Camirus and Lindus …

Logographos

(255 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (λογογράφος; logográphos). Writer of Greek court speeches. The ten classical Attic rhetors were called logográphoi. The word was, however, also frequently used in a derogatory sense (e.g. Aeschin. 1,94; 3,173). As in principle the parties in the proceedings in Athens had to represent the matter themselves before the court, the ‘orator’, if he was not appearing on his own matter, remained undetected in the background: he was not a representative of a party or an attorney ( syndikos ), but a ‘speech writer’ (which is how logographos should be literally translated). H…

Antidosis

(152 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἀντίδοσις; antídosis, exchange). In Athens someone designated to discharge a leitourgia ( Liturgy) could take measures to avoid it by naming somebody richer who was not exempt from it, but who had escaped it. He could ask him to assume the leitourgia or, if the other man denied, insist on an exchange of their respective fortunes. Such an exchange was in practice fully possible [1; 3], although this is contested [2]. If the person so named wanted neither the leitourgia nor an exchange, then the plaintiff was forced to assume the leitourgia or seek a   diadikasia

Zeugitai

(274 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ζευγῖται, literally 'yoke-men', from ζεῦγος/ zeûgos = 'yoke', 'team'), the third of Solon's [1] four property-classes in Athens ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 7,3 f.). The name indicates either that they were the men rich enough to serve in the army as hoplîtai , 'yoked together' in a phálanx [2. 135-140; 5], or, less probably, the men rich enough to own a yoke of oxen [1. 822 f.]. According to Ath. Pol. (loc.cit.), they were the men whose land yielded between 200 and 300 médimnoi ('bushels'), best interpreted as barley or the equivalent value in other crops [3. 14…

Symmoria

(314 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (συμμορία/ symmoría, 'company'). In Athens in the fourth cent. BC, a group of men liable for payment of the property tax called eisphora or for the leitourgía (Liturgy I) of the trierarchy (Trierarchia). In 378/7 all payers of eisphorá were organised in 100 symmoriai for administrative convenience (Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 8): each member continued to be taxed on his own property, but later the liturgy of proeisphorá was created, by which the three richest members of each symmoria had to advance the whole sum due from their symmoria. There were addit…

Hellenotamiai

(236 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (ἑλληνοταμίαι). The title Hellenotamiai (‘Stewards of Greece’) was borne by the treasurers of the  Delian League. The exchequer they managed, originally located on Delos, was probably transferred to Athens in the year 454/3 BC (Thuc. 1,96,2; Plut. Aristides 25,3; Pericles 12,1; cf. IG I3 259 = ATL List 1), because the annually elected boards were numbered in a continuous sequence starting in 454/3. From the beginning, however, the Hellenotamiai were Athenians, were appointed by Athens (Thuc. ibid., cf. [1. 44f., 235-237]),…

Thesmothetai

(440 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (θεσμοθέται/ thesmothétai 'establishers of law'). In Athens, a college of six men who were added to the archon, the basileus and the polemarchos to form the college of nine archons. In the fifth or fourth cent. a tenth official was created, known as the 'secretary' (Grammateis) to the thesmothetai, after which one archon was appointed from each of Cleisthenes’ ten tribes (Phyle). Their place of work, the thesmotheteion, became the working-place and eating-place for all the archons (Ath. Pol. 3. 5, schol. Plat. Phaid. 235 d). The thesmothetai were responsible not for…
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