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Universalienstreit des Mittelalters

(2,279 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] I. Die philosophische Problemstellung Im Universalienstreit geht es um das Wesen des Allgemeinen und sein Verhältnis zum Einzelnen (Allgemeines/Einzelnes). Die ontologische Grundannahme, die Welt bestehe aus Gegenständen mit Eigenschaften, spiegelt sich in der sprachlichen Subjekt-Prädikat-Struktur der Aussagesätze, der das logische Verhältnis von singulärem und generellem Terminus, von Element und Menge, von Individuum und Allgemeinbegriff zugrundeliegt. Kann dieser logisch-ontolog…

Siger

(248 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] von Brabant (ca.1240 – ca.1284 Orvieto), Säkularkanoniker in Lüttich, M.A. in Paris. Seine an Aristoteles orientierte Philos. geriet in den Verdacht der Häresie und erfuhr Angriffe von Bonaventura, Thomas von Aquin u.a. Am 10.12.1270 verurteilte der Pariser Bf. Stephan Tempier seine Lehre. Am 23.11.1276 vor ein Inquisitionsgericht zitiert, floh er aus Paris. Tempier verurteilte am 7.3.1277 erneut S. unterstellte Thesen. Die ihm nachgesagte Lehre von der doppelten Wahrheit in Philo…

Petrus

(122 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] von Wien (um 1120/30 – 1183 Zwettl [?]). Der Schüler Gilbert Porretas setzte sich 1153 brieflich mit Gerhoch von Reichersberg auseinander. 1158–1161 war er Magister in Wien. Er vf. wahrscheinlich noch in Frankreich die »Zwettler Summe«, das wichtigste syst.-theol. Werk der Porretaner Schule, in dem er Gilberts Unterscheidung von Natur und Person in Gott verteidigte. Das Werk enthält vier Teile über die Trinität, die Menschwerdung Gottes und die Sakramente. Bes. durch Hugo von Honau hatte P. Kontakte zu Konstantinopel. Reinhold Rieger Bibliography Briefe: Schol…

Wilhelm

(181 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] von Auxerre (um 1150 Auxerre [?] – 1231 Rom), Archidiakon von Beauvais. 1229–1231 war er in den Streit zw. der Universität Paris und dem franz. König verwickelt und vollzog die Bulle Gregors IX. »Parens scientiarum« vom 13.4.1231 zur Bestätigung und Erweiterung der Rechte der Universität. Die Korrektur der aristotelischen naturwiss. Schriften durch eine päpstl. Kommission, in die W. berufen wurde, blieb ohne Ergebnis. Sein Hauptwerk, die »Summa aurea« (1215/1229), wurde zum Lehrbu…

Robert

(149 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] von Melun (ca.1100 – 2.2.1167 Hereford); Schüler von Abaelard und Hugo von St. Victor in Paris. 1137 M.A. in Paris; Schüler von ihm waren Thomas Becket und Johannes von Salisbury. R. war Theologe in Melun; Gegner von Gilbert Porreta und Petrus Lombardus. 1160 wurde er Archidiakon in Oxford und 1163 Bischof von Hereford. Sein Hauptwerk, die »Sententiae«, behandelt im ersten Buch die Heilstatsachen des AT mit Gottes- und Trinitätslehre sowie Anthropologie, im zweiten Buch die des NT…

Wilhelm

(176 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[English Version] von Conches (um 1080 Conches – um 1154). Seit 1120 Lehrer an der Kathedralschule von Chartres. Zw. 1144 und 1149 im Dienst des Herzogs der Normandie. Er vf. Komm. zu antiken Autoren wie Boethius (De consolatione philosophiae), Macrobius, Juvenal, Priscian, Plato (Timaios). Sein Hauptinteresse galt der Naturphilos., die er in seinem Frühwerk »Philosophia mundi« (um 1124) und dem »Dragmaticon philosophiae« (1144–1149) kosmologisch und anthropologisch entwickelte. Er griff v.a. auf a…

Thierry of Chartres

(149 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Theodoricus Brito; died c. 1156). Thierry taught the artes liberales and theology in Paris c. 1130/1140 and for some time in Chartres. His students included Petrus Helias, Ivo of Chartres, John of Salisbury, and Clarembald of Arras. He wrote primarily commentaries on Cicero’s De inventione, the Rhetorica ad Herennium (c. 1130), and Boethius’s De trinitate (after 1148). His glosses and lectures on the latter have also survived. His doctrine of the Trinity was influenced by the Neoplatonic question of the relationship between one and many. His Tractatus de sex dieru…

John of Salisbury

(248 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1115/1120, Old Sarum – Oct 25, 1180, Salisbury). John studied in Paris (1136–1147) with Abelard, William of Conches, Gilbert of Poitiers, Robert of Melun, Thierry of Chartres, and ¶ Robert Pullus. In 1154, he entered the service of Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, and in 1162 that of Theobald's successor, Thomas Becket. Because of Becket's conflict with Henry II, John was banished to Reims (1163–1170). In 1176, he became bishop of Chartres. His writings are marked by his classical education. The Entheticus (1155) is a didactic poem on philosophy. The Metalogicon (1…

Ivo of Chartres

(190 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1040, Chartres? – Dec 23, 1115/1116, Chartres). Following studies in Le Bec (near Lanfranc) and in Paris, Ivo became canon in Nesle, then provost of the canons regular of St. Quentin in Beauvais, and finally bishop of Chartres in 1090. He contributed to the resolution of the Investiture Controversy by distinguishing between ecclesial and royal, unalterable and alterable, spiritual and wordly law. He supported the canons regular (Regulated clergy), whom he placed above the monks. …

Isidore of Seville (Saint)

(399 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 560 – Apr 4, 636, Seville). From a Hispano-Roman family who migrated from Cartagena to Seville, Isidore succeeded his brother Leander as archbishop of Seville" in 599/601. He was an adviser to King Sisebut, founded episcopal schools with libraries in Seville, Toledo, and Saragossa and chaired the synods of Seville (619) and Toledo (633). In many of his works, he endeavored to communicate, especially to the clergy, comprehensive religious and secular learning nourished by antiquity. The Differentiae contain an alphabetical list of words meant to elucida…

Honorius of Autun

(141 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] ( Honorius Augustodunensis; 1080/1090 – c. 1150, Weih St. Peter). A Benedictine friar, Honorius of Autun was probably a disciple of Anselm of Canterbury. Around the year 1100, he wrote the Elucidarium in Canterbury, a didactic theological dialogue that became widely circulated. His historico-theological exegesis of the Song of Songs was written in Regensburg, as was his world history Summa totius and the Clavis physicae, the latter being dependent on John Scotus Eriugena. Honorius was above all a ¶ compiler, but with popularizing and systematizing aims. Reinhold Ri…

Lyon, Councils of

(650 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] I. The first Council of Lyon was the renewed attempt of Pope Gregory IX to oppose Emperor Frederick Hohenstaufen after the emperor had forestalled a council convoked in Rome by Gregory in 1241. His successor ¶ Innocent IV succeeded in evading the power of the emperor and on Jan 3, 1245, convoked a council in Lyon to clarify the relationship between pope and emperor, take measures against the Tartars, and find help for the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Land. The council held three sessions from …

Guitmund of Aversa

(90 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (d. 1090/1095 in Aversa) was a monk in La-Croix-St-Leufroy who studied under Lanfranc of Bec. He declined appointments to bishoprics in England and Rouen, but agreed to become bishop in Aversa in 1088. As an opponent of Berengar of Tours, he did preliminary work on the doctrine of transsubstantiation with the concept of the mutatio substantiva. Reinhold Rieger Bibliography PL 149, 1427–1512 G. Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period, 1984 M. Dell'Omo, “Ricerche biografiche su Guitmondo,” Ben. 40, 1993, 9–34.

Duns Scotus, John

(1,682 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (“Doctor subtilis”; 1265/66 Duns?, Scotland – Nov 8, 1308, Cologne). There is great uncertainty on the biography of Duns Scotus. He came from Scotland, entered the Franciscan Order (Franciscans), and studied at Oxford and possibly Paris. He was ordained a priest in 1291. Whether he first taught at Cambridge is under dispute. Around 1300, he lectured ¶ at Oxford on the Sentences of Peter Lombard; likewise in Paris beginning in 1302. He was expelled from the country in 1303 for …

Amalrich von Bena

(117 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Amaury; born Bène, near Chartres, died 1206, Paris) studied and taught the artes liberales in Paris. He also was engaged in theology and developed a pantheistic Gnostic interpretation of history, inspired by Neoplatonism, based on John Scotus Eriugena and the natural philosophy of Aristotle. Our knowledge of his system depends entirely on works written by his opponents. His teachings were condemned in 1210 by a synod in Paris, along with the teachings of David, and in 1215 by the 4th Lateran Council. His followers were persecuted as heretics. Reinhold Rieger Bibliogra…

Bernardus Silvestris

(166 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] The poet and natural philosopher Bernardus was a native of Tours, worked there as a teacher (e.g. of Matthaeus de Vendôme), and died probably after 1159. He presumably wrote a commentary on Aeneis I–VI and on Martianus Capella. His thinking reveals the early influence of the Arab transmission of Aristotelianism (Aristotle, Reception History), but remains determined by the Platonism of Chartres (Thierry). His main opus, the Cosmographia (1145/1153), is based on Plato's Timaios, as well as on Calcidius, Asclepius, Macro…

Eriugena, John Scotus

(391 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 810, Ireland – c. 880, West Franconia), philosopher. This teacher of the artes liberales taught at the court or cathedral school of Charles the Bald in Laon. He wrote a commentary on Martianus Capella's De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, which he used as a textbook on the artes liberales. For him, logic was the formal foundation of all the six other liberal arts. Eriguena prepared the first useful translation of the Corpus Dionysiacum (Dionysius Areopagita), to which he added a commentary. In his testimonial requested to de…

Fulbert of Chartres, Saint

(173 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 960/970 – Apr 10, 1028, Chartres), was a student of Gerbert of Aurillac in Reims; he became chancellor in 1004 and bishop of Chartres in 1006, where he built the Romanic Cathedral. Influenced by Neoplatonism and Ps.-Dionysius Areopagita (Pseudo-Dionysius), he valued dialectics as a scientific method, but warned against overvaluing it in theology. Regarding the doctrine of the Eucharist (Communion: II, 2; III), he argued in support of transsubstantiation and real presence (in c…

Albertus Magnus

(707 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Albertus Alemanus, Colonien- sis, Teutonicus, de Lauing; c. 1200, Lauingen – Nov 15, 1280, Cologne) was from a knightly family (not from Bollstadt). After studies in Padua, where Jordan of Saxony induced him to enter the Dominican Order in 1223, he spent his novitiate in theological studies in Cologne, took his vows in 1224, and was ordained …

Bradwardine, Thomas

(318 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1290, Hartsfield (?), Sussex – Aug 26, 1349, Lambeth) studied and taught at Balliol and Merton Colleges in Oxford from 1321 to 1326. He was ordained priest in 1332 and became chancellor of the university of Oxford. He took his licentiate in theology in 1336 and his Master's degree in 1340. He became chancellor of St Paul's in London in 1337, and …
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