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Hiba

(194 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Bischof von Edessa [2] († 28.10.457 n.Chr.). Dort übertrug H., Lehrer an der “Schule der Perser” und Anhänger der antiochenischen Theologie, Schriften des Theodoros von Mopsuestia, Diodoros [14] von Tarsos und des Aristoteles ins Syr. Wiederholt angegriffen (u.a. mit dem Vorwurf der Häresie und Simonie), wurde er, 436 dem Ortsbischof Rabulas (Rabbula) nachfolgend, auf der “Räubersynode” (Ephesos 449) als Anhänger des Nestorios abgesetzt und verbannt, in Chalkedon (451) aber rehab…

Eunomios

(153 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] (Εὐνόμιος). Bischof von Kyzikos († um 394 n.Chr.). Aus einfachen Verhältnissen stammend, wurde der mit den Bischöfen Aëtios von Alexandreia und Eudoxios von Antiocheia in Verbindung stehende E. um 360 n.Chr. Bischof von Kyzikos. Nach Widerständen kam es zu Amtsverzicht. Mit dem Tod des Aëtios (367) wurde E. alleiniger Führer der von der Reichskirche abgespaltenen Kirchengemeinschaft der Anhomöer (Arianismus). Mehrmalige Verbannung. Nur wenige Schriften sind erh., darunter der um 360 verfaßte Ἀπολογητικός (

Monophysitismus

(415 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Unter der seit dem 7. Jh.n.Chr. belegten Bezeichnung M. wird jene Lehre verstanden, die von Christus nach der Einigung von Gottheit und Menschheit eine einzige Natur (μόνος/ mónos, “einzig”; φύσις/ phýsis, “Natur”) aussagt. Im engeren Sinne bezeichnet der Begriff “Monophysiten” (Mph.) unter Berücksichtigung einer großen theologischen und organisatorischen Vielfalt jene Gegner der Zwei-Naturen-Lehre des Konzils von Kalchedon (Chalkedon; 451), die entgegen dessen Glaubensentscheidung (eine Person oder Hypostas…

Gratus

(76 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] [1] Befehlshaber der Fußtruppen Herodes d.Gr. Proröm. gesinnter Befehlshaber der Fußtruppen Herodes d.Gr. (Ios. bell. Iud. 2,3,4; 4,2,3; 5,2; ant.Iud. 17,10,3; 17,10,6f.; 17,10,9). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) [English version] [2] Valerius G. procurator von Iudaea 15-26 n.Chr., unter Kaiser Tiberius als Nachfolger des Annius Rufus Landpfleger ( procurator) von Judaea (Ios. ant. Iud. 18,2,2; 18,6,5). Ihm folgte Pontius Pilatus ins Amt. Rist, Josef (Würzburg) Bibliography PIR2, 123, Nr. 146 (G. 1); 3, 357, Nr. 58.

Monotheletismus

(266 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Eng mit der byz. Reichspolitik verknüpfte theologische Kontroverse des 7. Jh.n.Chr. Unter M. sowie dem als Vorläufer auftretenden Monenergismus wird die Lehre von einem einzigen Willen (μόνος/ mónos, “einzig”; θέλημα/ thélēma, θέλησις/ thélēsis, “Willen”) bzw. einer einzigen Tätigkeit oder Wirkkraft (ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia) in Christus verstanden. Kirchenpolit. Ausgangspunkt der vorrangig in Byzanz bzw. mit dem röm. Papsttum ausgetragenen Konflikte war der Versuch des oström. Kaisers Herakleios [7] (610-641), nach mil. Erf…

Häresiologie

(275 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Als Häresiologen bezeichnet man verschiedene frühchristl. Autoren, die in einer oder mehreren ihrer Schriften vergangene und zeitgenössische Häresien aufzählen, inhaltlich beschreiben oder zu widerlegen versuchen. Schwerpunkte dieses sog. antihäretischen Schrifttums (zur Problematik des Häresie-Begriffs vgl. [1. 290-295]) liegen in den ersten drei Jh. auf der Auseinandersetzung mit Gnosis, Montanismus sowie judenchristl. Gruppierungen. Eine erste Zusammenstellung verschiedener Häresien und ihrer sukzessiv auf Simon Magus zurückge…

Doctrina patrum de incarnatione verbi

(79 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[English version] Dogmatisches, an der Wende vom 7. zum 8. Jh.n.Chr. enstandenes Florilegium, welches auf der Grundlage bereits existenter, h. z.T. verlorener christologischer Sammlungen (u.a. Kap. 24 und 33) erstellt und fälschlicherweise dem Apokrisiar Anastasios [3] († 666) bzw. dem Abt Anastasios Sinaites [5] († kurz nach 700) als Verf. zugeschrieben wurde. Rist, Josef (Würzburg) Bibliography Ed.: F. Diekamp, D., 1907. Lit.: A. Grillmeier, Jesus der Christus im Glauben der Kirche 2/1, 21991, 94-100.

Monophysitism

(448 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Monophysitism, a term known since the 7th cent. AD, refers to the doctrine that Christ, after the union of the divine and human, has a single nature (μόνος/ mónos, single; φύσις/ phýsis, nature). In a narrower sense, monophysites are opponents (who may be of a variety of theological and organisational backgrounds) of the doctrine of the two natures of Christ as stated by the Council of Calchedon (AD 451). Contrary to the definition of the Council (one person or hypostasis in two natures), they upheld the formul…

Nestorius, Nestorianism

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(named after N., bishop of Constantinople, AD 428-431; d. in c. 451). [German version] A. Life According to Socr. 7,29,2, N. was probably born after AD 381 in East Syrian Germanicea. The centre of his early work was Antiochia [1], where N. joined the monastery of Euprepius located outside of the city. Formative for his thinking was the so-called Antiochene theology represented by Diodorus [20] of Tarsus and Theodorus of Mopsu(h)estia (whose student he may have been). At Emperor Theodosius II's instigation, N., …

Gratus

(83 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Commander of the infantry of Herod the Gr. Pro-Roman commander of the infantry of Herod the Great (Jos. BI 2,3,4; 4,2,3; 5,2; Ant. Iud. 17,10,3; 17,10,6f.; 17,10,9). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) [German version] [2] Valerius G. Procurator of Judaea In AD 15-26 procurator of Judaea as successor of Annius Rufus (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; 18,6,5) under emperor Tiberius. He was in turn succeeded by Pontius Pilate. Rist, Josef (Würzburg) Bibliography PIR2, 123, no. 146 (G. 1); 3, 357, no. 58.

Heresiology

(307 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] The term heresiologists refers to several early Christian authors, who enumerate past as well as contemporary  heresies in one or more of their works in an effort to describe and repudiate them. In the first three cents., this so-called antiheretical corpus (on the problems inherent in the concept of heresy cf. [1. 290-295]) focused on the disputes with  Gnosticism,  Montanism, and Jewish-Christian groups.  Iustinus provided a first collection of various heresies, tracing them back successively to their origin in Simon Magus ( Sýntagma; lost, content reconstru…

Macedoniani

(296 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Initially the term for the Arian factions ( Arianism) gathered in the mid 4th cent. around bishop Macedonius of Constantinople († before AD 364). Later the name is applied to the pneumatomáchoi , i.e. all those, also non-Arians, who deny the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The eponymous Macedonius - initially in constant competition with the Nicene bishop Paulus who had been exiled on several occasions - became bishop of Constantinople in 342. After Paulus' final expulsion (in 351), sole bishop; …

Hiba

(215 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] ( Ibâs) Bishop of  Edessa [2] († AD 28 October 457), where he, as teacher at the ‘Persian School’ and follower of Antiochene theology, translated the works of  Theodorus of Mopsuestia,  Diodorus [14] of Tarsus, and Aristotle into Syrian. He was repeatedly attacked (i.e. accused of heresy and simony) and, as successor of the city bishop  Rabulas (Rabbula) in 436, was removed from office and exiled by the ‘Robber Synod’ of Ephesus (449) as a follower of  Nestorius, only to be reinstat…

Hegemonius

(338 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Alleged author, otherwise unknown, of a powerfully effective anti-Manichaean ( Mani, Manichaeism) polemical treatise, recorded in its entirety only in Latin translation and known as the Acta Archelai (CPG 3570). Despite an indication of a Syrian source (Jer. Vir. ill. 72), the basis of the Latin translation from the 1st half of the 5th cent. could well have been a Greek original created between 330 and 348 [1. 136-140]. Information beyond any doubt regarding the author - H. names himself as author (Acta 68: ego scripsi; in the sense of ‘scribe’, ‘editor’?) - and…

Vitae Sanctorum

(578 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] ('saints' lives'), an important genre of hagiographic literature. The VS enjoy a special position among the documents concerning early Christian saints (B.) and their veneration. From the point of view of the literary genre, they belong to the biography ('spiritual biography': [5.8]), but they can also assume features of other Greek and Roman literary genres (such as the novel), as well as of biblical stories. Modern scholars favour the term 'hagiographic discourse', which includes numerou…

Firmillianus

(166 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Important bishop of  Caesarea in Cappadocia (died in AD 268). Shortly after 230 he became bishop and around 250 he instigated the deposition of bishop Fabius of  Antioch [1] who was inclined towards Novatianus. In the dispute on the baptism of heretics, the close friend of  Origenes sided with  Cyprianus [2] of Carthage and opposed the Roman bishop Stephanus I. Informed by Cyprianus, he replied in autumn 256 [1. 248] with a letter originally written in Greek (Cypr. epist. 75 [CCL …

Doctrina patrum de incarnatione verbi

(79 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Dogmatic florilegium, dating from the end of the 7th into the 8th cent. AD, that was put together from already existing but now partially lost Christological collections (i.a. ch. 24 and 33) and wrongly ascribed to the apocrisiary  Anastasius [3] († 666) or the abbot  Anastasius Sinaites [5] (died shortly after 700). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) Bibliography Edition: F. Diekamp, D., 1907. Bibliography: A. Grillmeier, Jesus der Christus im Glauben der Kirche 2/1, 21991, 94-100.

Marissa

(172 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Hebrew Mārēšā, Mārešā, ‘settlement on the heights’; Gr. Μάρισ(σ)α; Máris(s)a). City in the south-west of Judea ( Palaestina ). M. became Edomite (Edom) after the Exile and was probably an important administrative centre. It is known to us from frequent OT references (Jos 15:44; 2 Chr 14:8f.; 20:37 inter al.), non-biblical sources (e.g. Flavius Josephus) and numerous archaeological finds from Tell Sandaḫanna (‘Hill of St. Anna’; also known as Tell Mārēšā) located c. 2 km south of the modern Bet-Guvrin. Tra…

Henotikon

(140 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Ἑνωτικόν; Henōtikón). Aimed at the churches of Egypt, Libya and the Pentapolis, on the occasion of patriarch Petrus Mongus' assumption of office, the H., promulgated in AD 482 by the East Roman emperor  Zeno, with the influential collaboration of patriarch Acacius of Constantinople (CPG III, 5999; originally Ἤδικτον Ζήνωνος, ‘edict of Zeno’, named H. since Zacharias Rhetor, Historia ecclesiastica 5,8; cf. Evagrius, Hist. eccl. 3,13f.), sought to restore the unity of belief and emp…

Stylites

(109 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] A special form of Christian asceticism common esp. in Syria, characterised by the ascetic's permanent abode on the top of a column (στυλίτης/ stylítēs, 'column-stander' of ὁ στῦλος/ ho stŷlos, 'column'). A connection to non-Christian forms (cf. the φαλλοβάται/ phallobátai in Lucian Syr. D. 28 f.) seems unlikely (differently [1]). The initiator and most important representative is Simeon the Elder (d. in AD 459) whose column became a destination for pilgrims. Other stylites of renown were the Simeon the Younger, Daniel, Alypius of Adrianopolis, Lazarus and Lucas. Ri…
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