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al-Ḥākim al-Naysābūrī

(303 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ibn al-Bayyiʿ , a traditionist of note, b. 321/933, d. 405/1014. He travelled in various countries to study Ḥādit̲h̲ and heard traditions from about 2000 s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s. Because he held the office of ḳāḍī for a time he became known as al-Ḥākim. He wrote many books, among them Maʿrifat ʿulūm al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , an important work on the science of Ḥadīt̲h̲ , which set a standard for the method of dealing with the subject. Though he was held in high esteem for his scholarship and was visited by many sc…


(588 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. Mahdī b. Masʿūd b. al-Nuʿmān b. Dīnār b. ʿAbdallāh , was born in Dār al-Ḳuṭn, a large quarter of Baghdad, whence he got his nisba , in 306/918. He was a man of wide learning who studied under many scholars. His studies included the various branches of Ḥadīt̲h̲ learning, the recitation of the Ḳurʾān, fiḳh and belles-lettres. He is said to have known by heart the dīwāns of a number of poets, and because of his knowing the dīwān of al-Sayyid al-Ḥimyarī he was accused of being a S̲h̲īʿī. His learning was so wide that many …

Abū Hurayra

(584 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
al-Dawsī al-Yamānī , Companion of Muḥammad. His name ʿAbd S̲h̲ams was changed to ʿAbd Allāh or ʿAbd al-Raḥmān when he became a Muslim, but numerous other names have also been mentioned. He was called Abū Hurayra because, when he herded his people’s goats, he kept a kitten to play with. When he came to Medina the Prophet was on the expedition to Ḵh̲aybar (7/629). Accepting Islam, he associated closely with Muḥammad on whose charity he depended, and was one of the poor men called ahl al-ṣuffa [ q.v.]. He was devoted to his mother whom he persuaded to become a Muslim. ʿUmar appointed…

Abū Ḏh̲arr

(272 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
al-G̲h̲ifārī , a Companion of Muḥammad. His name is commonly given as Ḏj̲undub b. Ḏj̲unāda, but other names are also mentioned. He is said to have worshipped one God before his conversion. When news of Muḥammad reached him he sent his brother to Mecca to make enquiries, and being dissatisfied with his report, he went himself. One story says he met Muḥammad with Abū Bakr at the Kaʿba, another that ʿAlī took him secretly to Muḥammad. He immediately believed, and is surprisingl…


(363 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥman b. al-Faḍl b. Bahrām b. ʿAbd al-Ṣamad Abū Muḥammad al-Samarḳandī belonged to the B. Dārim b. Mālik, a branch of Tamīm. He travelled in search of traditions and learned them from a number of authorities in al-ʿIrāḳ, Syria and Egypt. Among those who transmitted traditions on his authority were Muslim b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲āj and Abū ʿĪsā al-Tirmid̲h̲ī. Al-Dārimī lived a simple, pious life devoted to study, and acquired a reputation for knowledge of Ḥadīt̲h̲ , reliability, truthfulness and sound judgement. He was asked to accept office as ḳāḍī


(432 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, abū muhammad al-ḥusayn b. masʿūd b. muḥ. al-farrāʾ (or ibn al-farrāʾ ), a doctor of the S̲h̲āfiʿī school, traditionist, and commentator on the Ḳurʾān. His laḳab s were Rukn al-Dīn and Muḥyi ’l-Sunna. He came from the village of Bag̲h̲ or Bag̲h̲s̲h̲ūr near Harāt (cf. al-Samʿānī, f. 86a). Al-Farrāʾ (furrier) comes from his father’s occupation. He studied fiḳh under the ḳāḍī al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ī, becoming his favourite pupil; and heard traditions from a number of traditionists. He was noted fo…

Abū Dāʾūd al-Sid̲j̲istānī

(563 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Sulaymān b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ , a traditionist; born in 202/817. He travelled widely in pursuit of his studies and gained a high reputation for his knowledge and piety. Eventually he settled at Baṣra, which is no doubt why some wrongly held that the nisba Sid̲j̲istānī comes from a village near Baṣra called Sid̲j̲istān (or Sid̲j̲istāna), and not from the province of that name. He died in S̲h̲awwāl 275/Febr. 889. Abū Dāʾūd’s principal work is his Kitāb al-Sunan , which is one of the six canonical books of Tradition accepted by Sunnīs. He is said to hav…


(577 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, ʿabd allāh b. ʿumar b. muḥammad b. ʿalī abūʾ l-ḵh̲ayr nāṣir al-dīn . He belonged to the S̲h̲āfiʿī school, and attained the position of chief ḳāḍī in S̲h̲īrāz. He had a reputation I for wide learning, and wrote on a number of subjects including Ḳurʾān exegesis, law, jurisprudence, scholastic theology, and grammar. His works are generally not original, but based on works by other authors. He is noted for the brevity of his treatment of his various subjects, but his work suffers on this account from …

Ḥadīt̲h̲ Ḳudsī

(676 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
(sacred, or holy tradition), also called ḥadīt̲h̲ ilāhī , or rabbānī (divine tradition), is a class of traditions which give words spoken by God, as distinguished from ḥadīt̲h̲ nabawī (prophetical tradition) which gives the words of the Prophet. Although ḥadīt̲h̲ ḳudsī is said to contain God’s words, it differs from the Ḳurʾān which was revealed through the medium of Gabriel, is inimitable, is recited in the ṣalāt , and may not be touched or recited by the ceremonially unclean. Ḥadīt̲h̲ ḳudsī does not necessarily come through Gabriel, but may have come through inspiration ( ilhām

Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ

(449 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Taḳī ’l-Dīn Abū ʿAmr ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Kurdī al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī , who belonged to the S̲h̲āfiʿī mad̲h̲hab , was born in 577/1181 at S̲h̲arak̲h̲ān, a village in the Irbil district near S̲h̲ahrazūr, and died in Damascus in 643/1245. He studied fiḳh at S̲h̲ahrazūr with his father, who later took him to Mosul where he studied ḥadīt̲h̲ . He continued his studies in a number of centres such as Bag̲h̲dād, Naysābūr, Merv, Damascus, Aleppo, Ḥarrān and Jerusalem, with distinction. Ibn K̲h̲allikān, who studied under him for a ye…


(5,996 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
(narrative, talk) with the definite article ( al-ḥadīt̲h̲ ) is used for Tradition, being an account of what the Prophet said or did, or of his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence. K̲h̲abar (news, information) is sometimes used of traditions from the Prophet, sometimes from Companions or Successors. At̲h̲ar , pl. āt̲h̲ār (trace, vestige), usually refers to traditions from Companions or Successors, but is sometimes used of traditions from the Prophet. Sunna (custom) refers to a normative custom of the Prophet or of the early community. I. The development of Ḥadīt̲h̲ Tra…


(657 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, innovation, a belief or practice for which there is no precedent in the time of the Prophet. It is the opposite of sunna and is a synonym of muḥdat̲h̲ or ḥadat̲h̲ . While some Muslims felt that every innovation must necessarily be wrong, some allowance obviously had to be made for changing circumstances. Thus a distinction came to be made between a bidʿa which was ‘good’ ( ḥasana ) or praiseworthy ( maḥmūda ), and one which was ‘bad’ ( sayyiʾa ) or blameworthy ( mad̲h̲mūma ). Al-S̲h̲āfiʿī laid down the principle that any innovation which runs contrary to the Ḳurʾān, the sunna, id̲j̲māʿ , or at̲h̲ar…

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(363 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Maʿāfirī , a traditionist belonging to Seville; b. 468/1076, d. 543/1148. In 485/1092 he travelled with his father to the East, and spent periods studying in Damascus and Bag̲h̲dād. In 489/1096 he performed the Pilgrimage, after which he returned to Bag̲h̲dād and studied under Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲azālī and others. He then went with his father to Egypt and met traditionists in Cairo and Alexandria. After his father’s death in 493/1100 he returned to…

al-D̲j̲arḥ wa ’l-Taʿdīl

(832 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, (disparaging and declaring trustworthy), a technical phrase used regarding the reliability or otherwise of traditionists and witnesses. This article deals with the former; for the latter see ʿadl . While the criticism of ḥadīt̲h̲ did not, as is often said, apply solely to the isnād , This formed a very important part of it. In the course of the 2nd/8th century when it was realized that many false traditions were being invented, interest in the transmitters developed, and statements regarding their qualities were made…


(417 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, abū bakr aḥmad b. al-ḥusayn b. ʿalī b. mūsā al-k̲h̲usrawd̲j̲irdī , traditionist and S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh . He studied Tradition with Abu ’l-Ḥasan Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn al-ʿAlawī, al-Ḥākim Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh and others. He travelled in many countries in pursuit of this subject and is credited with having had a hundred s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s . In theology he was an As̲h̲ʿarite. He was of a frugal, pious, and scholarly nature. Towards the end of his life he went to Nīs̲h̲ābūr where he taught traditions and transmitted his books. Al-Bayhaḳī was a vo…


(95 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, chain of authorities, an essential part of the transmission of a tradition. Little need of this was realized in the earliest times, but as the first century of Islam advanced, the need for stating one’s authority developed. The collections of traditions which were compiled mainly in the 3rd/9th century onwards give complete isnād s. See al-d̲j̲arḥ wa ’l-taʿdīl and ḥadīt̲h̲ . Add to the Bibliographies Fazlur Rahman, Islam, London 1966, chap. 3 passim and Nabia Abbott, Studies in Arabic literary papyri II, Qurʾanic commentary and tradition, Chicago 1967, see Index. (J. Robson)

Ibn Mud̲j̲āhid

(237 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. al-ʿAbbās Abū Bakr al-Tamīmī (245/859-324/936), was born in Bag̲h̲dād and seems to have spent his life there. He is noted for his study of the various Ḳurʾān readings, for the large number of pupils who attended his classes, and for writing the first book on the seven Ḳurʾān readings. Al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī calls him a reliable authority ( t̲h̲iḳa maʾmūn ), and quotes a statement made in 286/899 by the grammarian Arimad b. Yaḥyā to the effect that at that time no one knew more about the Ḳurʾān than Abū Bakr Ibn Mud̲…

al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl

(892 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
b. ibrāhīm b. al-mug̲h̲īra b. bardizbah abū ʿabd allāh al-d̲j̲uʿfī , a famous traditionist, b. 194/810, d. 256/870. He has the niṣba D̲j̲uʿfī because his greatgrandfather al-Mug̲h̲īra was a mawlā of Yamān al-D̲j̲uʿfī, governor of Buk̲h̲ārā. at whose hands he accepted Islām. Al-Buk̲h̲ārī began to learn traditions by heart at the age of ten, and seems to have been a very precocious boy, for he is credited with having been able at an early age to correct his teachers. He had a remarkable memory, and compa…


(308 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, a slavewoman who had arranged to buy her freedom in nine (or five) annual instalments, appealed to ʿĀʾis̲h̲a who agreed to pay the whole sum. The owners were willing to sell her, but insisted on retaining the right of inheritance from her. When the Prophet heard this he told her to buy her, for the right of inheritance belonged to the one who set a person free. ʿĀʾis̲h̲a therefore paid the money and set Barīra free. She remained as ʿĀʾis̲h̲a’s servant and is said to have died during the Caliph…

Ibn al-Mubārak

(165 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḥanẓalī (118 or 119/736 or 737-181/797) a merchant who combined with his business a love of learning. He travelled widely, studying under many authorities, including Abū Ḥanīfa. Besides his large collection of traditions (20,000 according to Ibn Muʿīn), his interests included matters legal, religious and literary. He said that he heard traditions from 4,000 s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s and transmitted from 1,000. Muslim has some of his traditions in his Ṣaḥīḥ . Ibn al-Mubārak. studied fiḳh with Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī and Mālik b. Anas, whose Muwaṭṭaʾ
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