Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( Schönig, AND Hanne AND (Halle/Saale) ) OR dc_contributor:( Schönig, AND Hanne AND (Halle/Saale) )' returned 54 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Hassan

(74 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[English version] ( Ḥasan). Enkel des Propheten Mohammed, Sohn seiner Tochter Fatima und seines Vetters Ali, Bruder des Husain, 624/5 bis nach 670 n.Chr. Nach der Ermordung Alis verzichtete H. nach Verhandlungen auf das Kalifat zugunsten des Omajjaden (Umayyaden) Muāwiya (661) und blieb fortan polit. unbedeutend. Für die Schiiten ist er der zweite Imam nach seinem Vater Ali. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography L.Veccia Vaglieri, s.v. Ḥasan b. Alı̄ b. Abı̄ Ṭālib, EI 3, 240b-243b.

Hedschra

(71 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[English version] ( hiǧra). Auswanderung, Übersiedlung des Propheten Mohammed (Muḥammad) und einiger seiner Anhänger von Mekka nach Medina 622 n.Chr. nach tribalen Schwierigkeiten (Aufkündigung des Clan-Schutzes seitens seines Stammes Quraiš); Beginn der islamischen Zeitrechnung. Erst mit der H. begannen Mohammeds Wirken auch als Staatsmann sowie die eigentliche Ausbreitung des Islam (zunächst durch Bündnispolitik). Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography A. Noth, Die Hiǧra, in: U. Haarmann (Hrsg.), Gesch. der arab. Welt, 1987, 11-57.

Harun al-Rashid

(90 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Hārūn ar-Rašı̄d). Fifth Abbasid ( Abbasids)  Caliph (AD 786-809). Popular because of the narratives from the ‘Arabian Nights’. His term of office was characterized by political unrest in the Arab lands from North Africa to Yemen, by difficulties in consolidating  Islam in the eastern parts of his realm, as well as by wars against Byzantium. His main achievement in the cultural area is the promotion of translations into Arabic of Greek natural scientific and philosophical literature. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography F. Omar, s.v. Hārūn al-Rashı̄d, E…

Uṯman

(97 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Uṯmān ibn Affān; Οὐθμάν/ Outhmán; Persian-Turkish Osman). Third of the four 'rightly-guided' caliphs (AD 644-655). After the glittering rule of his predecessor Omar, whose (expansionist) policies he continued, U. instead received reproach and dissatisfaction, e.g. owing to nepotism. His compilation of divine revelations into a final canonical edition (Qur'ān), a move towards strengthening central authority, was also heavily criticized in its implementation. Unexplained happenings a…

Shiites

(118 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (< Shia/ Šı̄a, literally 'party', elliptical for 'Party of Ali'). Term for the supporters of Ali in the struggle for the caliphate (Caliph). According to the number of imams (Imam) they recognise, Fiver (e.g. Zaidites in Yemen), Sevener (e.g. Ismailites in Pakistan and central Asia; Fatimids 909-1171 in northern Africa and Egypt, Fatima) and Twelver Shiites (group with the largest number of adherents, today in e.g. Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon) are distinguished. Martyrdom, i.e…

Omar

(106 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Umar b. al-Ḫaṭṭāb). Second of the four 'rightly-guided' caliphs (AD 634-644). O. established the foundation of the Islamic empire and its political institutions through expansion as well as domestic organization. His negative and reserved attitude toward Jews and Christians was reflected in a number of religious-law and political decisions. The Sunnites revere O. even today as an ideal Muslim and just ruler, while the Shiites despise him as an advocate of Abu Bakr and hence an ene…

Al-Mansur

(58 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (al-Manṣūr). Abū Ǧafar al-Manṣūr, second Abbasid caliph (AD 754-775). Actual founder of the dynasty, founder of Baghdad (763). Consolidated the realm by suppressing uprisings and making improvements in administration, transportation, communications, economy and commerce. He designated his son al-Mahdī as his successor despite objections.  Abbasids Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. Kennedy, Manṣūr, in: EI 6, 427a-428b.

Bisseni

(117 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Latin Bisseni, Greek Πατζινάκαι/ Patzinákai). Turkic-speaking group of tribes, first mentioned in AD 834, to the north of the Caspian Sea. After the collapse of the kingdom of the Chazars in 969 they were driven by the Oghuz Turks across the Volga into the Pontic steppes and in 971 they were defeated by the Byzantines and the Kievan Rus. The B. fled from the Rus to Bulgaria in 1036 and fought bitter battles (including in alliance with the Oghuz) with Byzantium (in 1091 and 1122) and …

Muawiya

(92 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Muāwiya, Greek Μαυΐας/ Mauïas). Founder of the dynasty of Umayyads, Caliph AD 661-680. From 634 onwards, the caliphs Abu Bakr and later Omar had already entrusted M. with various capacities as commander and governor in Syria. During his rule he consolidated this firm position internally, maintaining and incorporating the tribal structure. In foreign policy he built on earlier advances, particularly against North Africa and Byzantium, and achieved further military successes. Testimonials: Theophanes, p. 346-348, 355f. de Boor. Ali Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saa…

Abbasids

(143 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abbāsids). Islamic dynasty (AD 750-1258). The accession of the A. occurred after a weakening of the  Omayyads by disputes over succession, tribal conflicts, social alienation and Iranian influences, which were expressed in a new orientation towards the East. In 763 the capital relocated from Damascus to Baghdad. Intellectual life profited from the multinational constellation. Scientific, cultural and literary flowering characterized by Hellenistic and Iranian influences under ca…

Abu Bakr

(81 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abū Bakr). First of the four righteous caliphs (AD 632-34), i. e. the first successor of  Muhammad. As one of the latter's first followers and close advisor, A. became caliph after his death though not without opposition ( Ali). After subduing the apostasy movement he is credited with the initial consolidation of the young Islamic community and laid the foundation for its rapid initial expansion.   Caliph Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography W. M. Watt, Abū Bakr, in: EI2 I, 109b-111a.

Mecca

(107 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Makka; Μακόραβα; Makóraba, Ptol. 6,7,32). The most important of the holy cities of Islam only accessible to Muslims, located in modern Saudi Arabia. Mecca is the place where the prophet Muhammad was born and worked until he emigrated ( Hejira) to Medina ( Yaṯrib). It is the direction of prayer and the destination of pilgrimage ( Kaaba). Mecca was already an important centre of trade in the pre-Islamic period. The first Koranic revelations ( Qur'an) are primarily a critique of the materialism and lack of faith of Meccan merchants. Macoraba Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bib…

Umayyads

(381 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
( Banū Umayya). [German version] A. The dynasty AD 661-750 First Islamic dynasty (AD 661-750), with its capital at Damascus. Under the Umayyads, the Islamic expansion reached Central Asia in the east and the Pyrenees in the west. The Byzantines were driven out of North Africa, but kept resisting the Arabs in Asia Minor. This - ethnically and religiously heterogeneous - extensive empire required a new internal organization and administration, modelled on Byzantine and Persian-Sassanid institutions. Its hey…

Imam

(137 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Arab. imām, in general ‘conductor, leader’). 1. conductor of prayer, i.e. prayer-leader in the mosque, 2. leader of the community of all Muslims in succession to the prophet  Mohammed (Muḥammad), i.e. religious and political head. The schools of law and lines of belief evidently have different views about qualifications, investiture and offices/duties of the imam. Among the  Sunnites: defender of faith, (religious) law and justice. The imam following on from the four  Caliphs, who…

Harem

(131 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( ḥarı̄m). A sacred, inviolable, prohibited place, i.e. those parts of the house where the women (mother, wife/wives, daughters, unmarried sisters, concubines) of a family live and which can only be entered by those male members of the family who have a particular family relationship. Also a term for the female members of a family. The segregation of the sexes is based on statements in the Koran (Surah 33,53-59). In Europe, an erotically-exotic image of the harem prevailed for a lo…

Ali

(72 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Alī). Ali ben Abu Talib, last of the four righteous caliphs (AD 656-661). Cousin, son-in-law and one of the first followers of  Muhammad. After differences in opinion and struggles with the  Omayyad Muāwiya, the Kharijites, who eventually assassinated A., separated. Shiites believe A. is the first rightful successor of Mohammed, the first Caliph  Imam.  Caliph;  Shiites Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography V. Vaglieri, Alī b. Abī Ṭālib, in: EI 1, 381b-386a.

Kalam

(264 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( kalām). In Islam, (scholastic) theology, (defensive) apologetic. In fact: ʿilm al-kalām, literally: ‘science of the word, of speech’, which means presentation and explanation, dispute, discussion, (rational and dialectical) argumentation, reasoning, and the defence of Islamic beliefs and of the divine unity, against persons of different faiths, infidels, doubters, and heretics ( Heresiology). A theological discipline since the 7th cent. The emphasis is on a rational-dialectical, and, from …

Caliph

(189 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( ḫalı̄fa). ‘Successor’, ‘representative’, elliptical for ‘successor of the Prophet’  Muhammad, since the Umayyads (661-750; contested, perhaps even earlier) ‘representative of Allah’. The following caliphs were regarded as ‘rightfully appointed’ (by election; Muhammad did not leave any regulations):  Abu Bakr (632-634),  Omar (634-644), who was the first to also hold the title ‘ruler of the believers’,  Othman (644-656), and  Ali (656-661). Since the  Umayyads, we find hereditary …

Mosque

(110 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( masǧid; ‘place where one prostrates oneself (in prayer)’; the Arabic word is of Syrian origin: masgeḏā). Muslim (Islam) place of prayer; also, a social meeting-point and a place of teaching. In the course of time several architectural types of mosques developed and already existing cult buildings were taken over (Hagia Sophia, Constantinople; Ummayad Mosque, Damascus). All mosques have a prayer niche facing Mecca, washing facilities and usually one or more minarets (Muezzin). In special Friday mosques ( ǧāmi) the Friday prayer is performed together in th…

Sufism

(184 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( taṣawwuf). As early as the initial period of Islam, Islamic mysticism developed out of a striving for an ascetic way of life and renunciation of the world, partly under the influence of Christian monasticism, but also of Neoplatonic philosophy (Neoplatonism) and Iranian elements of learning. According to the beliefs of Sufism, the fear of God and faith in God, with the aid of meditation and remembrance of God (recitations, standardized in content and technique, of religious formu…
▲   Back to top   ▲