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Gnapheus, Gulielmus

(193 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Willem de Volder; 1493, Den Haag – Sep 29, 1568, Norden). After his studies in Cologne (from 1512) and from 1522, the successful humanistic dramatist was rector of a school in The Hague. In 1529, his Acolastus, a drama concerning the prodigal son that underwent more than 50 reprints and translations, appeared in Antwerp. In 1531, he evaded the Inquisition by going to Elbing, where he became the rector of the new Latin school in 1535. In 1541, he was forced to escape from bishop Johannes Dantiscus, to Königsberg. He…

Ratze(n)berger, Matthäus

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1501, Wangen im Allgäu – Jan 3, 1559, Erfurt), deserves mention only for his notes on the history of his times, which are highly subjective, yet written from the vantage point of personal closeness to Luther and great veneration for him; he lived through Luther’s Reformation from the start of his studies in Wittenberg in 1516. He was distantly related to Luther by marriage, and in 1546 became one of the guardians of his children. From 1538 to 1546 he served Elector John Frederick…

Loener, Kaspar

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493, Markt Erlbach – Jan 4, 1546, Nördlingen), attended the monastery school in Heilsbronn, studied in Erfurt from 1508 and perhaps in Wittenberg from 1518. He became pastoral administrator in Unternesselbach and celebrant of the early mass in the Cistercian monastery in Birkenfeld (Neustadt/Aisch) in 1520 and preacher in Hof in 1524. Expelled in 1526, he became preacher in Oelsnitz, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg in 1526, but was a court preacher again already in 1529…

Aurifaber (Goldschmidt)

(264 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] 1. Andreas (1514, Breslau [Wrocław] – Dec 12, 1559, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]); brother of 2. From 1527 on he studied and taught at Wittenberg. In 1539 he became rector of the Latin school in Danzig; he move to Elbing in 1541, returned to Wittenberg in 1542, and then studied medicine in Padua. In 1546 he was appointed professor at Königsberg and became the personal physician to the duke. In 1550 a second marriage made him the son-in-law of A. Osiander, after whose death he became the leader of the Osiandrist party, exercising great influence on Duke Albert of Prussia. Heinz Sch…

Hedio, Kaspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1494, Ettlingen – Oct 17, 1552, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After education at Pforzheim, Freiburg, and Basel, Hedio became cathedral preacher in Mainz in 1520; he received his Dr.theol. in 1523. From 1523 to 1550 he served as preacher in the Strasbourg Minster. After 1549 he succeeded M. Bucer as president of the Strasbourg consistory. In 1550, as a result of the Augsburg Interim, he was transferred to the Dominican church. He was of great importance for the reform of the church an…

Rörer, Georg

(224 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1492, Deggendorf – Apr 24, 1557, Jena), Luther’s closest colleague, began his studies at Leipzig in 1511, receiving his M.A. on Dec 22, 1520. At the end of 1522 he moved to Wittenberg, where he matriculated on Apr 11, 1523. He tirelessly transcribed Luther’s sermons and lectures. After being ordained to the diaconate by Luther, in 1525 he was appointed second deacon of the municipal church, with responsibility for the rural parishes until 1533. In 1537 he was relieved of t…

Beyer, Hartmann

(143 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1516, Frankfurt/M. – Aug 11, 1577, Frankfurt). Following twelve formative years in Wittenberg, Beyer was appointed preacher in 1546 in his native town, which was Upper German in orientation (ordained by J. Bugenhagen). Against the advice of Luther, he immediately attempted to introduce the Saxon order of liturgy. When the council accepted the Augsburg Interim in 1548, Beyer published two polemical pamphlets under the pseudonyms Cephalus and Epitimius. In 1552, he secured the expulsion of Theobald Thamer by the council. In 1561, he obtained the closure of the We…

Aquila (Adler), Caspar

(226 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Aug 7, 1488, Augsburg – Nov 12, 1560, Saalfeld) traveled as far as Italy on extended educational journeys. In 1510 he studied at Leipzig, in 1513 at Wittenberg; in 1514 he was ordained priest and took a pulpit in Bern. In 1515 he became a military chaplain under F. v. Sickingen. In 1516 he became pastor of Jengen and married; his son Malachia…

Forster, Johann

(205 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1496, Augsburg – Dec 8, 1556 [not 1558], Wittenberg). Forster's work was essentially dedicated to the study of Hebrew. In Ingolstadt, where he was a student from 1515 (M.A., 1520), he attended the lectures of J. Reuchlin in 1520–21. He then studied Greek in Leipzig and in 1522 became a Hebrew teacher in Zwickau. In 1530 he went to Wittenberg, where he developed a close relationship with Luther. In 1535–38 he was a preacher in Augsburg, and in 1539–41 a professor in Tübing…

Briesmann, Johannes

(146 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Dec 31, 1488, Cottbus– Oct 1, 1549, Königsberg, Prussia), OFM. He studied at Wittenberg in 1507, at Frankfurt/Oder in 1510, and Wittenberg again in 1513. He was consecrated to the priesthood in 1510, and won over to Luther in 1519 at the Leipzig Disputation. He received the Dr. theol. from Wittenberg in 1522, became cathedral preacher in Köni…

Eitzen, Paul von

(163 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1521, Hamburg – Feb 25, 1598, Schleswig) began studies in Wittenberg in 1539 (1543 M.A., 1556 Dr.theol.) and became school rector in Cölln/Spree (Berlin) in 1544. In 1547, he became professor of logic in Rostock. In 1548, he became preacher and lector at the cathedral in Hamburg, in 1555 also superintendent. In 1562, he became the general superintendent …

Brück, Gregor

(183 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Heins; after Oct 12, 1485, Brück, Potsdam-Mittelmark – Feb 15, or more likely 20, 1557, Jena) studied in Wittenberg (1502), in Frankfurt/Oder (1506), and law in Wittenberg (1508). He was then a lawyer, alderman (1519) and court adviser. He obtained his Dr.iur. from Wittenberg in 1521. From 1521 to 1528, he was the chancellor of John the Const…

Busche, Hermann von dem

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Buschius, Sylvius; c. 1468, Sassenberg – Apr 1534, Dülmen) was educated in Münster, Deventer and Heidelberg, after which he traveled to Italy. From 1495 to 1500 he studied law in Cologne and lectured in the humanities, later also in Rostock, Greifswald and Leipzig. In 1502, he held the ceremonial speech on the occasion of the opening of the University of Wittenberg, and became professor of poetry in Leipzig in 1503. From 1507 onward, he was a man of letters in Cologne. He sided with J. Reuchlin in the Jewish books dispute and contributed to the Dunkelmännerbriefe (


(110 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Enzinas, Francisco de; Nov 1, 1518, Burgos – Dec 30, 1552, Straßburg) moved from Leuven (1539) to Wittenberg in 1541, where he lived with Melanchthon. The latter inspired him to translate the NT into Spanish. In 1543, Dryander presented the Antwerp impression (Bible translations: II, 2.a) to the emperor in Brussels, whereupon he was imprisoned. In 1545, he fled to Wittenberg, where he recorded his experiences. He then traveled throughout Upper Germany and Switzerland, and stayed in England from 1548 to 1549. Heinz Scheible Bibliography F.W. Bautz, BBKL I, 1975, 151…

Aepinus, Johannes

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Hoeck; 1499, Ziesar – May 13, 1553, Hamburg). In 1517 Aepinus was premonstratensian in Belbuck (near Treptow on the Rega). He studied in Wittenberg from 1518 to 1520, after which he taught in Ziesar, was imprisoned and fled, taught in Greifswald, and in 1524 in Stralsund, where he composed a church order on the commission of the Council in 15…

Amerbach, Veit

(147 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Trolmann) (1503, Wemding – Sep 13, 1557, Ingolstadt). Amerbach studied at Ingolstadt in 1517, Freiburg in 1521, and Wittenberg in 1522. In 1526, he began teaching in Eisleben under J. Agricola. In 1529, he received his Master's degree and married. In 1530, he began teaching rhetoric and physics at Wittenberg, and in 1541 became a member of the consistory. After several years of criticizing Melanchthon and Luther philosophically and theologically, he became professor of rhetoric at Ingolstadt in 1543. In 1542, he published De anima, an attack on Melanchthon's …

Lang, Johann

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1486/1488, Erfurt – Apr 2, 1548, Erfurt). From 1500, Lang studied in his home town ¶ (B.A. 1503), where he joined the Augustinian Hermits in 1505/1506 and was ordained priest in 1508. With like-minded Luther, he was transferred to Wittenberg in 1551 (M.A. 1512, Bacc. biblicus 1515). From 1512 to 1516, he was professor of ethics. Having been recalled to Erfurt in 1516, Lang became prior and continued his studies of theology (Bacc. sententiarus 1516, Lic. theol. 1517, Dr. theol. 1519). He belonged…

Billicanus Gerlacher, Theobald

(187 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1490/1495, Billigheim – Aug 8/9, 1554, Marburg). In 1510 Billicanus began his studies at Heidelberg (forming a friendship with Melanchthon), and became a priest in Weil in 1518. He was expelled from the town because of his criticism of the church and served as a Luther-influenced preacher from 1522 to 1535 in Nördlingen, where in 1525 he authored a Kirchenordnung (document on church order), by which time he was married. At the Augsburg Parliament, he made approaches to the Roman par…

Crato von Crafftheim

(201 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Johannes Kraft; Nov 20, 1519, Breslau – Oct 19, 1585, Breslau) came to Wittenberg to study in 1535 and lived with Luther for six years, though he did not participate in the transmission of the table-talks. From 1543 he studied medicine in Leipzig, and in 1546 in Padua and Bologna (1549 In 1550 he became city physician in Breslau and served in the fight against the plague. As a supporter of Melanchthon in his doctrine of the Eucharist (…

Gratius, Ortwin

(196 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1480, Holtwick near Coesfeld – May 22, 1542, Cologne) began his studies in Cologne in 1501, received the M.A. in 1506, and became professor of rhetoric and poetry in 1507. He also worked as a printer's corrector and became a priest in 1514. The authors of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum picked on this supporter of Johannes (until his conversion in 1504: Josef) Pfefferkorn as the object of their scorn, against which he defended himself in vain. His suggestions for church reform, published in 1535, were placed on the Index in 1554. Heinz Scheible Bibliography VD16, 1, 8,…
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