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Knossos

(2,773 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG)
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] A. History and Results of Research (CT) The elevation on which Sir Arthur Evans unearthed the ruins of the Minoan palace of Knossos (K.) was given the name 'Head of the Lord' by Cretans of more recent times. The hill is protected from north winds by a mountain range in front of it and is connected to the sea by the streambed of the Kairatos; nowadays it also overlooks an important route heading southwards to the time-honoured Mt. Juktas. The Cretan busine…

Thera

(2,617 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG)
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] A. Archeological Excavations and Finds before 1967 (CT) Already in the 19th cent., archaeologists became interested in the volcanic island of Thera (T.) (Italian: Santorini) when before the middle of the century mining of volcanic ash began on the southwestern slopes of the main island and at the southern tip of the offshore island of Therasia, separated by the caldera resulting from a volcanic eruption in the Bronze Age. The pumiceous tuff is still extrac…

Cretan-Mycenaean archaeology

(3,436 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG)
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The sequence Cretan to Mycenaean is appropriate, since it has become clear that the Minoan culture, named after the mythical King Minos, is older than the culture that had one of its most important centres at Mycenae and is therefore called Mycenaean. Since both cultures extended well beyond Crete and Mycenae, the archaeology undertaken in this area is now also called Aegean archaeology, after the Aegean Sea. In the history of arc…

Mycenae

(2,277 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG)
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) Pausanias begins his brief report on Mycenae (M.) with the city's destruction at the hands of the Argives in 466 BC. The latter had felt penalized by the Mycenaeans, who had sent eighty warriors to fight the Persians at Thermopylae in 480 BC while Argos had held back. The Argives had also refrained from taking part in the Battle of Plataea. The first discoverers and users of ancient M. were the Greeks, who settled the walled fortress…

Tiryns

(3,171 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG)
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg RWG) [German version] A. History of the Site and Excavations to Schliemann (1884/85) (CT) Named in the Iliad (2,559) as τειχιόεσσα ('great-walled'), the site with the pre-Greek name Tiryns (T.) was well-known to the Greeks, primarily through the 'Cyclopean' walls, which were, according to Pausanias (9,36), "all that remains of the ruins", and in legend through its connection with the 'Tirynthian', Heracles (thus, e.g. Pindar, Ovid and Vergil). The name T. is included among the cities…

Knossos

(2,169 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg) RWG
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg) RWG [English version] A. Geschichte und Ergebnisse (RWG) Die Anhöhe, auf der Sir Arthur Evans die Ruinen des minoischen Palastes von Knossos freigelegt hat, nannten die Kreter neuerer Zeit “Kopf des Herrn”. Der Hügel ist durch einen vorgelagerten Höhenzug vor Nordwinden geschützt, durch das Bachbett des Kairatos mit dem Meer verbunden, und er überwacht auch heute einen wichtigen Weg nach Süden zum altehrwürdigen Juktasberg hin. Auf diese Anhöhe wurde in den 70er Jahren des …

Kretisch-Mykenische Archäologie

(3,078 words)

Author(s): Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg) RWG
Schiering, Wolfgang (Heidelberg) RWG [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) Die Abfolge kret.-myk. ist zutreffend, seitdem man weiß, daß die nach dem mythischen König Minos benannte minoische Kultur Kretas älter ist als die Kultur, die eines ihrer wichtigsten Zentren in Mykene hatte und deshalb myk. heißt. Weil die Verbreitung beider Kulturen weit über Kreta und Mykene hinausging, wird die Arch., die auf diesem Gebiet tätig ist, heute auch - nach dem Ägäischen Meer - Ägäische Arch. genannt. In der Geschic…