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Zarbienus

(60 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαρβιηνός /Zarbiēnós). A king of Corduene (Gordyaea), who negotiated with Appius Claudius [I 24] Pulcher in 71/70 BC over an alliance with Licinius [I 26] Lucullus, and was betrayed to his overlord Tigranes [2] II of Armenia, who disposed of him. Lucullus gave him a magnificent burial in 69 and confiscated his treasures (Plut. Lucullus 21; 29). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Pacorus

(369 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Member of the Parthian royal house P. (not P. I!), a son of Orodes [2] II; he is central to the first phase of the  Parthian Wars which followed the battle of Carrhae. In 53 BC, P. got engaged to a sister of the Armenian king Artavasdes [2] II, sealing the latter's coming over to the Parthian side. The Parthian invasion of Syria (51-50) was only nominally under the leadership of P., who was still young.  He played a greater part in the great attack on Syria, carried out under his command from 41 onward, but after initial success he died at Gindarus in 38 BC. Parthia Schottky, Mart…

Vaballathus

(173 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] L. Iulius Aurelius Septimius V. Athenodorus, son of Odaenathus [2] and Zenobia, perhaps identical to the Timolaos [5] mentioned in the Historia Augusta (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2 et passim; but cf. SHA Aur. 38,1). He was still a child when his father was murdered (in AD 267), so that his career was guided by Zenobia: V. appears after 267 as rex regum and corrector totius orientis (CIS II 3971), was later imperator and dux Romanorum [1] and Augustus in the spring of 272 (ILS 8924). Coins from Alexandria showing both Aurelianus [3] and V. should n…

Rodericus (Roderic)

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (German Roderich, Spanish Rodrigo, Arabic Luḏrīq). Last king of the Visigoths. The so-called Crónica Mozárabe (in Spanish) of AD 754, which provides information about the end of the West Gothic empire, reveals that R. was initially provincial governor (of Hispania Baetica ?) and in 710, after the death of Witiza, was elected king, an election which did not go unopposed. At the very time the Muslims invaded Spain in April/May 711, R. was fighting the Basques; yet he managed to deploy an approxim…

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Orodes

(580 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ὀρώδης; Orṓdēs). [German version] [1] O. I Parthian king, 1st cent. BC Parthian king around 81/80-76/5 BC who is mentioned under the name Uruda only in cuneiform texts [1. 517, 1162f., 1165, 1170f., 1174, 1446]. He was probably a son of Artabanus [4] I and therefore a brother of the kings Mithridates [13] II and Gotarzes I who ruled before him and Sanatruces who ruled after him. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 T.G. Pinches, J.N. Strassmaier, A. J. Sachs, Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, 1955. J. Oelsner, Randbemerkungen zur arsakidischen Geschichte …

Cylaces

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] More correctly perhaps Gylakes (Armenian Głak), Armenian eunuch and ‘head gentleman-in-waiting’ ( Hajr mardpet). After C. had temporarily changed over to the Persian side, he attempted from AD 368 onwards, together with the ‘regent’ ( hazarapet)  Artabannes [1], to protect the interests of young king  Pap and to limit the power of the higher nobility and the Church. Around 370 Sapor II induced Pap, through secret messages, to murder his ministers and to have their heads sent to him (Amm. Marc. 27,12; 30,1,3). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography J. Markwart, S…

Parthian and Persian wars

(1,319 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
The term 'Parthian and Persian wars' refers to the wars which the Romans initially fought against the Parthians (see A an B below) and subsequently against their successors, the Persian dynasty of the Sassanids (see C and D). [German version] A. Up to the end of the Roman republic The diplomatic relations between Romans and Parthians, begun under L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, had gradually deteriorated. Nevertheless, the invasion into the Parthian kingdom in 54 BC, headed by the triumvir M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus, took place without any provocat…

Vahram

(501 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Vararanes). [German version] [1] V. I Son of Sapor [1] I, Persian Great King AD 273-276. The capture and death of Mani take place in his time. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. II Son of V. [1], Persian Great King 276-293. V. had to go to battle with Carus [3] in 283, who was advancing on Ctesiphon. The sudden death of the Emperor and the retreat of the Romans gave the King room to breathe. PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. Sh. Shabazi, s. v. Bahrâm I-II, EncIr 3, 515-517. [German version] [3] V. III Son of V. [2], overthrown after his …

Witiza

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 694/5, W. became co-regent of his father, the Visigoth king Egica, who had become senile and died in 702. Information about his sole reign is difficult to obtain. The acts of the 18th Council of Toledo ( c. 703) are lost; medieval historiography (beginning with the Chronicon Moissacense, 9th cent.) primarily describes the alleged (particularly moral) misconduct of the last but one Visigoth king. This was apparently supposed to explain the swift collapse of the kingdom, which W.'s successor Rodericus was scarcely…

Boran

(46 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Sassanid queen, daughter of  Chosroes II and possibly the sister-bride of  Cavades II. She came to power in spring 630, after the usurper Sharwaraz was deposed, and ruled until autumn 631 (PLRE 3A, 246). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M.-L. Chaumont, s.v. Bôrân, EncIr 4, 366.

Gotarzes II

(518 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] After the death of King Artabanus II [5] which did not occur before AD 39, the empire of the Parthians was shaken by battles for the throne that filled the entire period of the reign of his successor G. His relationship to his predecessor and to the Arsacids is unclear: whilst he is usually regarded in the literary sources as the son of Artabanus (Tac. Ann. 11,8f.; Jos. Ant. Iud. 20,3,4), various pieces of circumstantial evidence lead us to conclude that he was only the foster-son…

Chosroes

(928 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Parthian king Parthian king; see  Osroes. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] C. King of Armenia, early 3rd cent. AD was most probably the name of the Arsacid king of Armenia who took part in the Parthian war of Septimius Severus, and in 214 or 216 was captured by Caracalla. His name was not given in the Greek sources, but mention of an ‘Armenian C.’ in an inscription at Egyptian Thebes (CIG 4821) may relate to him. The thesis of Armenian writers, frequently taken up by researchers, …

Radamistus

(145 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ῥοδομίστος/ Rhodomístos). The son of the Iberian king Pharasmanes [1] I; in AD 51, with the collusion of his father and the acquiescence of the Romans, he toppled his uncle, brother-in-law and step-father Mithridates [20] from the Armenian throne. Despite governing cruelly, R. was unable to withstand the Parthian nominee Tiridates [5] I and had to retreat to Iberia [1] in 54. His pregnant wife Zenobia [1], whom R. initially dragged along on the escape and then wounded and threw in…

Izates

(182 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἰζάτης; Izátēs). [German version] [1] I. I. King of Adiabene until c. 30 AD King of  Adiabene until c. AD 30. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] I. II. Grandson of I. [1], king from approx. 36 AD Grandson of I. [1], king from c. AD 36. Some years later he took in his hard-pressed Parthian overlord Artabanus [5] II and organized the latter's return to the throne, for which he was rewarded with the territory of Nisibis and privileges. His fickle politics in the struggles for the succession after Artabanus' death can be most…

Hengist and Horsa

(229 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (‘stallion and steed’). The brothers H. and H., sons of the Jute (Danish) Wihtgil, were said to be the leaders of Anglo-Saxon warriors recruited by the southern British king Vortigern in AD 449 to help him repel the Scots and Picts. After a few years, a conflict developed between the Britons and their Germanic allies. In the battle of Aylesford (455) Horsa is said to have died on the Germanic side, and Vortigern's son Categirn, on the British. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Hengist founded the kingdom of Kent in the same year. Hengist and his son Oisc …

Zariadres

(112 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαριάδρης/ Zariádrēs). In Chares [2] of Mytilene (FGrH 125, F 5 = Ath. 13,575), there is a love story between Z., the brother of a certain Hystaspes of Media, and the daughter of a Sarmatian prince. It exhibits strong similarities to an episode in Iranian literature. There two brothers called Guštâsp and Zarêr appear and it is Guštâsp who (under circumstances comparable to those of Chares' Z.) wins the daughter of the ruler of Rûm. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Boyce, Z. and Zarêr, in: BSO(A)S 17, 1955, 463-477 E. Yarshater, Iranian National History,…

Hephthalites+B71

(226 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] According to R. Göbl's classification ([1], cf. [2]),  Iran experienced four successive ‘waves’ of invading Hunnic peoples from the 4th cent. AD. While the first three groups of these ‘Iranian Huns’ (Kidarites, Alchon, Nezak) have left few traces in the literary sources, the H. in the 5th/6th cents. AD belonged to the most prominent and dangerous eastern neighbours of the Persians. They are first explicitly attested at the time of King Perozes and were vividly described by Procopius (BP 1,3). According to his report, the Ephthalitai were a Hunnic people, also kn…

Vortigern

(83 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] is the name in British (Nennius, Historia Brittonum 31-49) and English sources of a king who, in AD 428 or 449, enlisted the Anglo-Saxons under Hengist and Horsa and was thereby responsible for the Germanic conquest of Britannia. Gildas 23 does not mention V. by name, but calls him by the probably less appropriate title of superbus tyrannus ('proud tyrant'). PLRE 2, 1185. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography A. J. Kettle, s. v. V., LMA 8, 1860  J. Morris, Arthurian Period Sources 3, 1995, 171 f.

Yazdgird

(454 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Isdigerdes). [German version] [1] Y. I Persian great king 399-420/1. His rule represents a high point of good relations with the Roman East (otherwise: Claud. in Eutropium 2,475f.). This was expressed e.g. in the dying Arcadius' [1] request of Y. to take on the guardianship of his under-age son Theodosius [3] II (Procop. Pers 1,2,7-10; Theophanes A. 5900; uncertainty in Agathias 4,26,3-7), but, above all, Y. appeared so tolerant to Christians that Western accounts even ascribe to him the intention of…
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