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Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nehalennia

(264 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic mother goddess, documented by more than 160 inscriptions and pictorial dedications from the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. With two exceptions from Cologne- Deutz these were all found along the Dutch estuary of the Schelde, e.g. in Domburg (Walcheren) and in a submerged temple area discovered as late as 1971/2 on Colijnsplaat (Noord-Beveland) in the Oosterschelde. Today the latter is associated with classical Ganuenta, the assumed principal settlement of the Frisiavones, whose chief …

Chilperic

(248 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Burgundian king, 5th cent. AD C. I, Burgundian king; died c. 480. Co-ruler from 457, after the death of his brother Gundic in c. 472 he replaced the latter as magister militum Galliarum (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,6,2). First having fought against the West Goths, he eventually went over to their side and dissolved the treaty of federation with the Western Roman Empire.  Magister militum Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography J. Richard, s.v. Chilperic I., LMA 2, 1824f. A. Demandt, s.v. Chilperic, RE Suppl. 12, 1588. [German version] [2] Merovingian king, 6th ce…

Epasnactus

(54 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Epad[nactus]; Celt. name compilation from epo- ‘Horse’ [2. 89-90]). Pro-Roman prince of the  Arverni, who captured the rebellious Cadurcan leader Lucterius in 51 BC and turned him over to Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 8,44,3). E. is documented on several coins [1. 432-436]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1] 2 Evans.

Combutis

(76 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κόμβουτις; Kómboutis). Galatian leader following  Brennus [2] on the 279 BC invasion of Greece [1. 178]. C. and Orestorius were sent off together at the head of a strong contingent through Thessaly into Aetolia. There they committed great atrocities against the inhabitants of the city of Callion and suffered substantial losses on their return to Thermopylae at the hands of the Aetolians who had rushed in pursuit (Paus. 10,22,2-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Chiomara

(144 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Χιομάρα; Chiomára). Celtic name of the wife of the Tolistobogian king  Ortiagon [1. 156]. In 189 BC, after the victory of Cn.  Manlius Vulso over the Galatians at Olympus, C. came into the hands of a centurio. When he first sexually assaulted her and then wanted to set her free in return for a high ransom, she had him killed at the handover. She delivered his head to her husband. Polybius is supposed to have met her personally in Sardis, evidently when she was interned there after the fall of Ortiagon in 183 BC. P…

Orgetorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic composite name: “King of the cudgels” [1. 108f.]). Influential and prosperous Helvetian nobleman, whose greed for royal power, according to Caesar,  led him to instigate a conspiracy by the nobility and in 61 BC to persuade his tribe to move away from its ancestral territory. Appointed leader of this enterprise, O. (according to Caesar) then made plans with Casticus and Dumnorix to conquer the whole of Gaul. In the spring of 60 BC his large number of followers prevented hi…

Eposognatus

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐποσόγνατος; Eposógnatos). Celtic name; pro-Roman tetrarch of the Galatian Tolistobogii [1. 155]. E. remained loyal to Eumenes II of Pergamum and did not support Antiochus [5] the Great. For that reason, C.  Manlius Vulso asked him during his campaign against the Galatians in 189 BC to talk the Tolistobogii into voluntary submission, but without success (Pol. 21,37; Liv. 38,18).  Tolistobogii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Vergobretus

(215 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] According to Caes. B Gall. 1,16,5 the highest magistrate of the Haedui, who was elected annually by the nobility and, as the senior judge, held authority over life and death. Caes. B Gall. 7,32,3 characterizes his power as 'royal' ( regia potestas). He was not allowed to leave the tribal territory. If there was an interregnum, the priests presided over the election of the new V., but another member of the same family could not be elected during the lifetime of a V. (Caes. Gall. 7,33,2-3). There was also a council of nob…

Dumnorix

(218 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnoreix; Celtic composite name: ‘world king’ [1. 85-86]). Prince of the Haedui, brother of Diviciacus and son-in-law of Orgetorix, with whom he is supposed to have planned the conquest of the whole of Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,3). D. was the most powerful man in the tribe; he possessed his own mounted troop, and by means of gifts and matrimonial connections enjoyed great influence among foreign tribes, so that in 58 BC he was able to help the Helvetii to cross the territory of the S…

Albruna

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Albrinia, Aurinia). Germanic compound name (‘the one furnished with the secret knowledge of the albs’?) [1. 553], probably not a personal name, but rather a designation for a visionary woman. According to Tac. Germ. 8, A. was worshipped almost as a god by the Germans together with others even before  Veleda. Several such visionaries are transmitted in literature; thus Ganna,  Waluburg and other women who are not named (Suet. Vit. 14; Cass. Dio 55,1). Their meaning is often overstated; they had sooner a low function in cult and in society [2. 151-162]. Spickermann, Wol…

Carus [1]

(428 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Rottler, Christoph (Tübingen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
(Κάρος, Κάκυρος; Káros, Kákyros). Celtiberian from Segeda, general of several Iberian tribes and towns that defeated the army of the consul Q.  Fulvius [I 17] Nobilior on 23/ 8/153 BC. The Roman prohibition of building a wall around Segeda caused the confrontation. C. was killed while pursuing the enemy (App. Ib. 45; Diod. Sic. 31,39; Flor. Epit. 1,34 [Megaravicus]).  Hispania Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Poet friend of Ovid A poet friend of  Ovid (Pont. 4,13 is addressed to him; 3,5 in the Tristiae, where the identity of the respective addressees is con…

Boduognatus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound from boduo and -gnatus ‘he who was born of the battle crow’ [1.461; 2.60; 3.152]. Commander-in-chief of the Nervii in the Belgian tribes' battle against Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,23,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 1 2 Evans 3 Schmidt E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 594 Whatmough, 214.

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Childeric I

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] Frankish king ( c. 436-482), son of the hḗrōs epónymos Meroveus and father of  Clovis I. (Chlodovechus). C. ruled the Frankish province of Tournai from c. 463, and was frequently victorious as an ally of Rome fighting in northern Gallia against the West Goths and the Saxons. He was probably also entrusted with administrating the province of Belgica II (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9-27; Fredegar 3,11-12 MGH SRM 2). A legend relates that he interrupted his reign with eight years' exile in Thuringia (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,12). C.'s tomb was discovered in 1653 at his capital Tou…

Cerethrius

(31 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κερέθριος; Keréthrios). Leader of one of the three parts of the Galatian army who plundered Thrace in 280 BC (Paus. 10,19,7).  Belgius;  Brennus [2] Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Indutiomarus

(170 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Leader of a delegation of the Allobroges, 1st cent. BC Celtic compound name from -marus ‘great’ [1. 96-98]. Leader of a delegation of the  Allobroges, who accused M.  Fonteius [I 2] in 69 BC in repetundae proceedings ( Repetundarum Crimen). Cicero defended him, evidently with success ( Pro M. Fonteio) [2. 83-104]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B. Kremer, Das Bild der Kelten bis in augusteische Zeit, 1994. [German version] [2] Prince of the Treveri, besieged Labienus in 54 BC Prince of the  Treveri, father-in-law and opponent of …
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