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(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…


(108 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
(Περιμήδη/ Perimḗdē). [German version] [1] Sister of Amphitryon Sister of Amphitryon, wife of Licymnius [1]. Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Queen of Tegea in Arcadia Queen of Tegea in Arcadia (Hdn. Perì monḗrous léxeōs 8), also known as Marpessa or Choira (Paus. 8,47,2). P. successfully led a women's army against the Spartans under Charillus ( ibid. 8,48,4ff.), whom they captured along with his army (ibid. 8,5,9). The women make sacrifies to Ares for the victory they attained without male participation, therefore the latter received the epithet gynaikothoínas ('fe…


(80 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολυβώτης/ Polybṓtēs). One of the Giants. In the Battle of the Giants, Poseidon chases P. over the sea to the island of Cos. There Poseidon tears off a piece of the island and throws it at P. The thrown rock forms into the island of Nisyrus (Apollod. 1,38); P. is buried under either Cos or Nisyrus (Str. 10,5,16). In Athens there was an equestrian statue of Poseidon hurling a spear at P. (Paus. 1,2,4). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(91 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (also Antevorta: Macrob. Sat. 1,7,20; or Prorsa: Gell. NA 16,16,4). P. is the superlative of the Latin word porro, 'forward, far', analogous to the derivation of Hekátē (Hecate) from Greek hekás. As a companion (Ov. Fast. 1,633 ff.; Macrob. l.c.) or sister (Ov. l.c.) of Carmentis or identical with her (Gell. l.c.), P. knows the past, her sister Postverta knows the future. P. is also considered a goddess of birth who looks after feet-first births, whereas Postverta takes care of head-first births (Gell. l.c.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(95 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόλεμος/ Pólemos; Lat. Bellum). Personification of war (Ov. Met. 1,142 f.); he was considered the lord of kydoimós ('din of battle', Aristoph. Pax 204-300, esp. 236 and 255) and of the alalá ('war-cry', Pind. fr. 78). At Rome, War was locked behind double doors (Enn. Ann. 266 f.) with iron bolts (Verg. Aen. 1,293) and guarded by Janus (Ianus). Following a decision to wage war, the Roman consul personally opened the doors of the Temple of Janus at Rome, thereby issuing a call to arms (Verg. Aen. 7,607 f.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(55 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
(Φυλονόη/ Phylonóē, also Φιλονόη/ Philonóē). [German version] [1] Wife of Bellerophon Wife of Bellerophon, after her father Iobates regarded him as innocent (Apollod. 2,33). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Tyndareos and Leda Daughter of Tyndareos and Leda, made immortal by Artemis (Apollod. 3,126); worshipped in Laconia (Athenagoras, Presbeia 1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(77 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόνος/ Pónos). Personification of toil and stress, similar to the Latin Labor. Son of Erebus and Nyx (Soph. Trach. 29; Cic. Nat. D. 3,17,44) or Eris with no indication of the father (Hes. Theog. 226). As son of Eris, P. is placed first in the ranks of evil by Hesiod. However, he also has a positive aspect, in that he ends debauchery and sees to a virtuous life (Lucian. Timon 31-33). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(81 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποίας/ Poías). Father of Philoctetes (Hom. Od. 3,190), son of Thaumacus, husband of Demonassa [2]; one of the Argonauts (Apollod. 1,112; 141), he kills the Cretan Talos. His son is the ruler of the regions of Meliboea, Methone, Olizon and Thaumacia on the Magnesia peninsula (Hom. Il. 2,716). P. sets fire to Heracles [1]' funeral pyre on the Oete river; for this he receives Heracles' bow, which he bequeaths on to his son (Apollod. 2,160). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(90 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πορφυρίων/ Porphyríōn). King of the Attic deme of Athmonon (Paus. 1,14,7), later identified with the king of the  Giants (Pind. Pyth. 8,12 ff.). Son of Athamas and Gaea or of Erebus and Nyx (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). An enemy of Zeus (Aristoph. Av. 1251). P. is incited by Zeus to lust for Hera. When he tried to assault her, Zeus struck him with his lightning bolt and Heracles hit him with an arrow (Apollod. 1,36). According to Pindar (l.c.) P. was defeated by Apollo. Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(109 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδάργη/ Podárgē, 'the swift of foot'). One of the  Harpies; mother of Achilles' horses Balius and Xanthus (Hom. Il. 19,400). Zephyrus impregnates P. while she is grazing by the river Oceanus (Hom. Il. 16,150f.; Eust. ad Hom. Il. 16,150f., p. 1050,58ff.). P. is also the mother of Phlogeus and Harpagus (Stesich. PMGF fr. 178), the horses of the Dioscuri. A horse of Erechtheus that was also called P. has Boreas and a Harpy as parents (Nonn. Dion. 37,157); here the maternal name transfers to the daughter. According to one version Areion too…


(86 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολυφόντη/ Polyphóntē). Daughter of Hipponous and Thrassa, the daughter of Ares. P. spurns Aphrodite, sets off into the mountains and there becomes a companion of  Artemis. Aphrodite therefore punishes P. with love for a bear, and she gives birth to the man-eating twins Agrius and Oreus. Zeus intends to have their limbs cut off, but Ares causes them and their mother to be turned into birds. P. becomes the owl that announces war and discord to people (Antoninus Liberalis 21). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(66 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
(Φέρουσα/ Phérousa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hom. Il. 18,43 = Hes. Theog. 248; Apollod. 1,11; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8); her name is telling: the one who takes voyagers to their destination (schol. Hes. Theog. 248). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Horae One of the Horae (Hyg. Fab. 183,4). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)

Porcis and Chariboea

(123 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόρκις/ Pórkis and Χαρίβοια/ Charíboia). The two snakes that kill Laocoon [1] and his son (Tzetz. on Lycoph. 344; 347) or sons (only schol. Marcian. on Lycoph. 347). In Serv. Aen. 2,211, however, the names occur in the forms Curifis and Periboea. For the traditions and problems of the nomenclature cf. [1]. The two snakes are from Calydna. Apollo's epithet Calydneus (Steph. Byz. s. v. Κάλυδνα) also suggests a connexion with snakes. It is debatable, on the basis of the proportions between the two snakes and between Laocoo…


(85 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πορθάων/ Portháōn, 'the destroyer', also Πορθεύς/ Portheús: Hom. Il. 14,115 and Latin Parthaon: Ov. Met. 8,542; 9,12; Hyg. Fab. 175; Stat. Theb. 1,670; 2,726). Son of Agenor [3] and  Epicaste (Apollod. 1,59), husband of Euryte, king in Pleuron and Calydon. Father of Oeneus, Agrius and Melas (only these in Hom. l.c., hence great-grandfather of  Diomedes [1]). Also father of Alcathous, Leucopeus, Sterope (Apollod. 1,63) and Laocoon [2] (Hyg. Fab. 14,17; Apoll. Rhod. 1,191). Significant only as the father of Oeneus. Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(83 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόρος/ Póros). Personification of ways and means and of riches. Son of Metis. After the gods' banquet for Aphrodite's birthday, P. lies drunk in Zeus' garden; Penia (poverty) approaches him and wishes to have a child with him. The product of this union is Eros [1]  (Pl. Symp. 203b; Lydus Mens. 4,154). In a Christian context (Euseb. Praep. ev. 12,11), Zeus' garden is a symbol for Paradise, Penia for the evil serpent and P. for man himself. Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(50 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πυρηνεύς/ Pyrēneús). Mythical king from Daulis in Phocia, who invites the Muses to his palace, ostensibly to offer them shelter from a storm. When he is about to violate them there, they escape by flying away. P. dies in pursuing them (only  Ov. Met. 5,274-93). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)


(106 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολυφείδης/ Polypheídēs). Seer in Greek mythology. Son of Mantius, grandson of Melampus [1], father of Theoclymenus. After an argument with his father, he moves from Argos to Hyperesia in Achaea (Hom. Od. 15,249) and begins soothsaying to all. After the death of his nephew Amphiaraus (cf. stemma Hom. Od. 15,225 ff.; 242 ff.) he was the most important Greek seer. The older P. can easily be a successor to the younger Amphiaraus, as the latter dies young (Hom. Od. 15,246 f.). Pherecy…


(105 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποίμανδρος/ Poímandros). Son of Chaeresileus and Stratonice (Paus. 9,20,1), P. was said to have founded the Boeotian city of Poemandria (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 37), also referred to as Tanagra (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ποιμανδρία; Schol. Lycophr. 326). Polycrithus, architect of the new foundation, mocked the city walls by jumping over them. P., annoyed, threw a stone at him, missed and instead struck his own son Leucippus a mortal blow. Achilles [1], however, saw to it that P. was purified …


(162 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel)
[German version] (Πελασγός/ Pelasgós, Latin Pelasgus). Progenitor and namesake of the Pelasgi, with different regional myths in Arcadia, Argos and Thessaly. The Arcadian P. (1), son of Zeus and Niobe, husband of Meliboea or the nymph Cyllene and father of Lycaon (Apollod. 3,96), is the first inhabitant of the land. As its king he creates the cultural foundations (Paus. 8,1,4) and establishes a temple to Zeus (Hyg. Fab. 225; here P. is considered the son of Triopas, also Paus. 2,22,1). The Argive P. (…


(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…
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