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Ocelis

(99 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ὄκηλις/ Ókēlis, Ptol. Geog. 6,7,7; Peripl. m. r. 25; Acila, Ocilia, Plin. HN 6,104; Str. 16,4,5). Small monsoon harbour on the Arabian coast (Bāb al-Mandab). In the 3rd and 2nd century BC, O. belonged to Qatabān, then to the Ḥimyār kingdom. It probably corresponds to the modern harbour of Al-Šaiḫ Saīd. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989, 157-158  A. Sprenger, Die alte Geographie Arabiens, 1966, 67, 77  H. von Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philol.-histor. Kl. 2…

Macoraba

(76 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μακοράβα; Makorába). According to Ptol. 6,7,32, city in north-western Arabia Felix, already at an early time equated with Mecca. Based on the southern Semitic root mkrb (‘temple’, ‘sanctuary’ but also ‘altar’). In pre-Islamic Mecca there was a temple to the moon god Hubal, who was worshipped by the tribes in the neighbourhood. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 185, n. 380.

Fatima

(137 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Fāṭima). Daughter of  Muhammad and his first wife Ḫadı̄ǧa; wife of the future Caliph Alı̄ b. Abı̄ Ṭālib ( Ali), mother of al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusain; she is the only daughter of the prophet to be universally venerated by Muslims, who ascribe extraordinary powers to her. Especially among the  Shiites and the Ishmaelites she is regarded as a miraculous woman, in whom Christian (equated with the Virgin Mary) and gnostic traits (F. as the incarnation of light) come together. Little is known about the historic F. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. Lammens, Fāṭ…

Kufa

(125 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] ( al-Kūfa). Like Basra, founded in the early period of Islamic conquests (AD 639). Garrison city south of what was later Baghdad, on the right bank of the Euphrates, near the capital city of the Lakhmids, al-Hira. K. soon became the new capital city of Iraq and superseded Sassanid Ctesiphon, that from then on slowly declined. During the Caliphate ( Caliph) of Ali, K. rose for a short time to the status of overall capital city, and remained after Ali's murder (AD 661) a centre of Shiite agitation ( Shiites). However, it lost in importance after the founding of Baghdad. Toral-Nieh…

Leges Homeritarum

(218 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] ‘The law of the (rather: for the) Himyarites’ (Latin Homeritae, an Arab tribe ruling Yemen between the 3rd and 6th cent. AD), a collection falsely attributed to bishop Gregentius of Ẓafar. However, it is not a genuine southern Arabian law code but a Byzantine literary work of the 6th cent. AD reflecting the administration and urban life of the empire under consideration of certain peculiarities of Himyar [1. 567-620]. Together with the ‘Martyrium of Arethas’ [2], the Vita of Gregentius [3] and the ‘Dispute with the Jew Herban’ ( Sancti Gregentii disputatio cum Herbano…

Septem

(208 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (also Septem Fratres). Term for a chain of seven mountains on the African coast near the Straits of Gibraltar (Ptol. 4,1,5: Ἑπτάδελφοι ὄρος/ Heptádelphoi óros; Mela 1,5; Plin. HN 5,18; It. Ant. 9,3), and later probably for the settlement there, the modern Spanish Ceuta (by way of Arabic  Sabṭa). Archaeological remains bear witness to S. as a significant ancient centre for producing salted fish [1]. From the late Roman period there is a basilica [2]. After a failed attempt at conquest by the Visigoth king Theudis in 534, the emp…

Muza

(111 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Μούζα ἐμπόριον/ Moúza empórion, Ptol. 6,7,7; 8,22,6; peripl. maris Erythraei 6,10,12f; 16; Plin. HN 6,104). Port city of Mapharitis (Maāfir) on the southern Arabian coast of the Red Sea north of al-Muḫā, at the site of modern Maušiǧ. The modern inland settlement of Mauzaa  bears the old name. M. is mentioned by Pliny alongside Ocelis and Cane as one of the harbours at which incense traders called. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, 1989, 147-148  H. von…

Menambis

(127 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. (6,7,38; 8,22,13, Μενάμβις βασίλειον; Menámbis basíleion) the capital of Arabia Felix, on Ptolemy's map to the north west of the Κλῖμαξ ὄρος ( Klîmax óros) and a day's journey from Magulaba. It may have been a royal frontier fort of the Hadramauts ( Ḥaḍramaut) against the Ḥimyār (Homeritae) and Sabaeans ( Saba). There may be a connexion between the name and that of Banū Munabbih, who according to Arabic sources (Hamdāni, Ǧazı̄ra 167 Müller) settled there in the Islamic period. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H.v. Wissmann, M. Höfner, Be…

Acculturation

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] A. History of the concept (CT) The concept of acculturation originally derives from the conceptual apparatus of American-style Cultural anthropology, and is based on the concept of culture essentially developed by S. Tylor, which, in the course of the 20th cent., gradually replaced the normative-judgmental concept of culture that had been dominant until then. As an alternative to the latter, which classified human societies on a scale between primitive people…

Sabe

(119 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix (Σάβη/ Sábē: Ptol. 8,22,15). Unlocated city in the interior of  Arabia Felix. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Capital of Mapharitis in Arabia (Σάβη βασίλειον/ Sábē basíleion: Ptol. 6,7,42; Σάυη/ Sáuē: Peripl. m. r. 22; Save: Plin. HN 6,104; Šawwā, Šawwām: CIS 4,240,7; 314,14). Capital of  Mapharitis, in the hinterland of Muza, to the south of Taizz. At the time of the Periplous maris Erythraei it was the residence of a prince Χόλαιβος/ Chólaibos. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography L. Casson (ed.), Periplu…

Malangitae

(70 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μαλαγγῖται; Malangîtai). According to Ptol. 6,7,23, a people in central Arabia who lived on the Máreitha órē (Μάρειθα Ὄρη), i.e. on the Āriḍ. Probably corresponds to the tribe of the Maḏḥiǧ which was expelled by Imru al-Qais, the king of the Lakhmids in c. AD 300. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 175, 195f., 404-406.

Walid

(164 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] W. I Sixth Umayyad caliph (born AD 668, reigned 705-715; Umayyads A.), continued his father Abd-al-Malik's policy of Islamization. He had the church of Saint John standing on the site of the Temple of Hadad/Jupiter in Damascus (C.) converted into a mosque (Umayyad mosque; see Arabic-Islamic cultural sphere I. A.) and had the al-Aqṣā Mosque built in Jerusalem and the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina (Yaṯrib). Under his rule the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula (in 711) and of Cho…

Masonitae

(49 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] According to Ptol. 6,7,25 (Μασονῖται; Masonîtai) a tribe southwest of the K lîmax óros (Κλῖμαξ ὄρος, today Ǧabal Išbīl) in Arabia Felix. Probably connected to maṣanī (‘fortresses’). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Philos.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 415.

Zaabram

(228 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ζααβράμ, also Ζαβάμ/ Zabám, Ζααράμ/ Zaarám, Ζάμβρα/ Zámbra). City on the western coastal strip of the Arabian Peninsula. According to Ptol. 6,7,5 domain (βασίλειον/ basíleion) of the Kinaidokolpites (cf. also Steph. Byz. 293,16, where it is Ζαδράμη/ Zadrámē). Z. was probably the seat of power of a dependent prince (elsewhere in Ptol. μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis) and according to [1. 65] was in Marsā Ibrāhīm (Portuguese: Massabraim), the port of the Al-Līṯ oasis to the south of Jeddah (see [5]); others [2; 3; 4] locate Z. nearer to Mecca in the Wā…

Tabari

(153 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] Abū Ǧaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Ǧarīr al-Ṭabarī (AD 839-923). Significant Persian-Arab historian, lawyer and Koranic commentator. His 'Universal History' ( Taʾrīḫ) begins with a creation story; histories follow of Israel, ancient Persia and pre-Islamic Arabia. After an account of the life of Muhammad, T.'s chronicle is constructed annalistically and contains a detailed presentation of the Islamic campaigns of conquest and the periods of the Umayyads and the Abbasids up to AD 915. The significance of T.'s hi…

Baṣra

(295 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Τερηδών/ Terēdṓn, Ptol. 5,19,5; Ἰρίδωτις/ Irídōtis or Διρίδωτις/ Dirídōtis, Arr. Ind. 41,6). Arabian city in lower Mesopotamia, 420 km south-east of Baghdad on the Šaṭṭ al-Arab (combined course of the Euphrates [2] and Tigris shortly before their mouth). Although B. lies at the site of the Persian settlement of Vahištābāḏ Ardašer (preceded perhaps by ancient Diridotis/Iridotis or Teredon), it is essentially a new foundation originating during the period of the Arab conquest (AD 635), an…

Saraca

(190 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] City in Arabia Felix to the northwest of Adan (Σάρακα/ Sáraka). City in Arabia [II] Felix to the northwest of Adan. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (Σάρακα/ Sáraka, Σαρακήνη/ Sarakḗnē, Ptol. 5,17,3). Desert in the Sinai Peninsula (modern al-Tīḥ) inhabited by the Σαρακηνοί/ Sarakēnoí. There is probably a connexion with the Sarakēnoí who, according to Ptol. 6,7,21, lived in the Ḥiǧāz in Arabia. There has been no explanation of the etymology of this designation, used from the 3rd cent. AD on synonymously with Sceni…

Maccala

(79 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μάκκαλα; Mákkala). According to Ptol. 6,7,41, a city in Arabia Felix. We should probably reject the obvious identification with the modern harbour town of Mukallā/Yemen on the south coast, as it is inconsistent with the sequence of place names in Ptolemy. It corresponds rather with Manqal in the hinterland of Mélan óros (Μέλαν ὅρος, Arabic as-Saudāʾ). Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Geschichte und Landeskunde von Altsüdarabien (SAWW, Phil.-histor. Klasse 246), 1964, 417 (map).

Ogyris

(59 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Ὤγυρις; Ṓgyris). Island in the Arabian Sea. Ancient authors reported a monument to Erythras, the eponym of the Red sea, on O. (Deinias FGrH 306 F 7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤ.). Perhaps the island of Maṣīra. Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) Bibliography F. Jacoby, FGrH, Kommentar zu Nearchos FGrH 133 F 1,37,1-4  R.M. Burrell, s.v. Maṣīra, EI2 6, 729a.

Ḥimyar

(138 words)

Author(s): Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Homeritae: Plin. HN 32,161). Arab tribe, attested epigraphically from about AD 100. The Ḥ. held the political hegemony in southern Arabia between AD 100 and 590. The centre of their kingdom was  Saphar (in Plin. HN 25,104: Sapphar) on the plateau south of modern Yarīm. From there the Ḥ. gradually conquered the ancient Southern Arabic kingdoms of  Qatabān,  Sabaʾ and  Ḫaḍramauṭ. In the mid-4th cent., Judaism and Christianity began to spread while simultaneously the attempts of the Sassanid and Byzantine empires to influence the Ḥ. kingdom increased (cf.   Leges Ho…
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