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Hegetor

(215 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Alexandrian doctor, lived between the time of Herophilus (330/320-260/250 BC), whose successor he was, and Apollonius (1st cent. BC), by whom he is cited; generally he is placed in the 2nd cent. BC because of his polemics against the  Empiricists and their views on aetiology. Of his works only indirect citations are extant, of which three bear his name, and the last (Gal. Def. med. 220 = 19,448f. K.) was merely attributed to him [1. 73 n. 44; 137 n. 183; 2]. Fragment 3 comes from a work Perì aitíōn (‘On the causes’) in which H. refutes the aetiological nihilism of th…

Iatromathematics

(982 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] A. Definition Iatromathēmatiká (Herm. 1,387,1 Ideler) or nosoúntōn perignostiká ek tês mathēmatikês epistḗmēs (ibid. 1,430,2-3) etc. is the term for the medical implications of astrology, i.e. the recognition of a nosological predisposition of patients or a prognosis of current illnesses, connected with prevention or therapy, depending on the case. Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) [German version] B. Sources The books on which iatromathematics is based are the alleged revelations of  Hermes, who was possibly assisted by Asclepius. These revela…

Heras

(286 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Greek doctor from Cappadocia who practiced in Rome. He explained his medication-based therapy, dated to between 100 BC and AD 40, in a treatise that has been dated [1. 242-246] to between 20 BC and AD 20. The recipes, which characteristically tend to be composite, indicate a late date. H.'s origin and the classicism of his medical material suggest an association with the ‘School of Tarsus’ [2], as it may be called, or at least permit classification with the current that it represents. Apart from a papyrus fragment [3], we have 25 quotes in Galen, of which 20 ap…

Enema

(440 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] ( klystḗr/ klystḗrion, Lat. clyster/ clysterium; also klŷsma/ klysmós and éngklysma, derived from klýzein/ engklýzein, Lat. inicere: to pour, to rinse, and enetḗr/ énema, from: eniénai: to inject) or clyster: pharmaceutical substance of, and device for, administering parenteral (in this case, often in combination with the adverb kátō or the verb hypoklýzein) or (in gynaecological treatises) vaginal injections of therapeutic solutions. The instrument consisted of a flexible and compressible container (animal skin or bladder) with two opening…

Medicina Plinii

(278 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Compilation of medical texts written in Latin and attributed in the MSS to an otherwise unknown Plinius Secundus Iunior. Mentioned by Marcellus [8] Empiricus, it is generally accepted to date back to the early 4th cent. AD or even slightly before that. The compilation starts with the author's declaration of his intention to prevent the counterfeiting of medicinal products whose ingredients he then lists together with the relevant composition. The work consists of three books. Bk. 1-2: medicinal preparations, ordered accor…

Vindicianus

(324 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Helvius V., 4th-century AD physician, of African origin, teacher of Theodorus [3] Priscianus. V. had - probably in 382 - contacts with Augustinus. He concluded his political career with a proconsulship in Africa, where, after being comes archiatrorum presumably in 379, he worked as a physician. V. is mentioned in the Codex Theodosianus (Cod. Theod. 10,19,9: AD 378; 13,3,12: 379). V. wrote several treatises influenced by Greek medicine, today lost apart from forewords ( praefationes) or fragments: (1) a collection of recipes, of which only the Epistula ad Valentinia…

Oribasius

(761 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Ὀρειβάσιος/ Oreibásios or Oribasios/Ὀριβάσιος). Greek doctor and author of medical treatises, b. around AD 320 in Pergamum, d. around AD 390/400 in an unknown location. After studying in Alexandria, O., who was not a Christian, returned to Pergamum. Once there, he practised medicine and gained an outstanding reputation as a doctor as well as a highly cultured man. He was a friend of the future emperor Iulianus [11], whom he had got to know possibly during Julian’s stay in Pergamum…

Crateuas

(419 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Κρατεύας; Krateúas). Rhizotómos ‘root-cutter’, ‘herb man’; [6. test. 7 and 8]) of the 2nd/1st cent. BC. He was assumed to be the pharmacologist of  Mithridates VI Eupator simply because he is attributed with assigning the name of mithridátia (6. test. 2) to a plant, although there is no proof for it in the phytonymy. It was also assumed that he went to Thapsus [3. 1644], but this was a mistake since the fr. in question [6. test. 16] points to Sicily [1; 2. 206, 529 and appendix]. The portrait of the Codex Vindob. med. gr. 1, f. 3v has been regarded as authentic [5. 1139.6…

Placitus Papyriensis

(271 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] Name of the author to whom is ascribed the Liber medicinae ex animalibus from the corpus also containing Ps.-Musa, De herba vettonica, Ps.-Apuleius, Herbarius, the anonymous treatise De taxone and Ps.-Dioscorides, De herbis feminis. As the work borrows from Marcellus' [8] De medicamentis, it would appear to date from the 1st half of the 5th cent. AD. The author, who is sometimes confused with Sextus Platonicus, is unknown and may be historically dubious, especially since text [5. 233-286] and illustrations [6] are atteste…

Medicinal plants

(3,044 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
CH Greek Latin name Main areas of use in antiquity Modern medical Identification Common Diosc. Plin. HN (*1) (*2) name (*3) (selection) (*4) properties (*5) (*6) name (*7) (*8) 1 87 smýrna balsamum, myrrha 69 + 18 (ophthalmology , wound treatment) ? Commiphora abyssinica Engl. Myrrh 1,64 12,66-71 2 72 kýminon cuminum 51 + 21 (stomach complaints , fever) adstringent, peptogenic, emmenagogic, lactogenic, stomachic Cuminum cyminum L. Cumin 3,59 20,159-162 3 63 helléboros elleborum, elleborus 16 + 47 (consumption , purification , hydropsy , rheumatism) Veratrum album: antirheumatic, H.…

Pharmacology

(4,223 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) I. Europe (CT) [German version] A. Early Middle Ages (CT) The practice of post-Classical curative art is characterised by six tendencies that complement or follow upon one another: 1. The fundamental texts survived in their original Greek version at least until the 5th-6th cent. (Dioscurides). Some were presumably translated into Latin during the same period at Rome or Ravenna (Hippocrates, Peri diaites, Oribasius, Synopsis and Euporista) or else in North Africa (Dioscurides). There were also new Greek texts from Constantinople (Dioscu…

Philumenus

(419 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (Φιλούμενος; Philoúmenos). Author of a treatise on poisonings (Περὶ ἰοβόλων ζῴων καὶ τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς βοηθημάτων, 'On poisonous animals and medicines extracted from them') that has only been passed down to us in the MS Vat. Gr. 284 (10th cent. AD). P.'s period of writing in any case later than Galenus - the work is structured following the model of the latter's treatise on toxicology - and it must have appeared before that of Oribasius who quotes him, i.e. it must be dated to the 2nd …

Malaria

(416 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] The term malaria covers a polymorphous complex of feverous diseases whose origin can be traced back to the parasite plasmodium carried by the anopheles mosquito. In antiquity, malaria could be distinguished by some of its symptoms: recurrent attacks of fever, particularly of three and four-day duration, swelling of the spleen (splenomegalia) or black urine. Aetiologially the feverous diseases were related to swampy regions, especially within the framework of climatic medicine. Treatment was symptom-…

Physiognomy

(678 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[German version] (φυσιογνωμονία/ physiognōmonía, Lat. physiognomia). Within ancient psychology, physiognomy represented a set of techniques, assessing a person's personality and character through the observation of physical characteristics and behaviour (Ps.-Aristot. Physiognom. 6-7). Extant sources: the treatise Physiognōmoniká, attributed to Aristotle [6], but probably originating from the Peripatos and the 3rd cent. BC; based on this, Polemon's [6] treatise, written between AD 133 and 136, of which a fragment and an Arabic tran…

Oreibasios

(691 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (Ὀρειβάσιος bzw. Oribasios/Ὀριβάσιος). Griech. Arzt und Verf. medizinischer Abh., geb. um 320 n.Chr. in Pergamon, gest. um 390/400 an unbekanntem Ort. O., der nicht Christ war, kehrte nach dem Studium in Alexandreia nach Pergamon zurück; dort übte er seinen medizinischen Beruf aus und erwarb sich einen hervorragenden Ruf - als Arzt wie als hochgebildeter Mann. Er war mit dem nachmaligen Kaiser Iulianus [11] bekannt, den er vielleicht während dessen Aufenthalts in Pergamon i.J. 35…

Kollyrion

(334 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (κολλύριον, lat. collyrium und βάλανος/ bálanos: Caelius Aurelianus, De morbis acutis 2,83; De morbis chronicis 2,39). Pharmazeutische Form zur Verabreichung pulverisierter und per Bindemittel zu einer homogenen Paste verarbeiteter medizinischer Stoffe bei lokaler Applikation, wie aus der Etym. hervorgeht ( kollýra: kleines rundes Brot ohne Hefe [2. 145], Brotteig [1. 556]). Die beiden Hauptanwendungstypen bestimmen Form und Funktion: Zur Einbringung in anatomische oder pathologische Öffnungen wurde ein kleiner Kegel g…

Pedanios Dioskurides

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης). [English version] I. Leben Der in Anazarbos (Kilikien) geb. Verf. der Abh. Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς/ Perí hýlēs iatrikḗs ( De materia medica, ‘Über Heilmittel) ist ins 1. Jh.n.Chr. zu datieren: Im Vorwort (§ 4) zit. er einen Laikanios Bassos, den er als krátistos (“höchsten”) bezeichnet und den man mit dem Senator C. Laecanius Bassus, dem Consul von 64 n.Chr., gleichsetzt; Plinius zit. die Abh. in seiner Naturalis historia (die dem Widmungsbrief zufolge 77 n.Chr. vollendet wurde) nicht, weshalb man annimmt, daß sie zu dieser Zeit noch nicht …

Infibulation

(151 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (κρίκωσις, κρικοῦσθαι, infibulare). Anlegen eines Rings (κρίκος) oder einer fibula, leichte chirurgische Intervention am männlichen Glied, die von Celsus (7,25,2) und von Oreibasios (50,11) beschrieben wurde. Der Eingriff bestand im Durchstechen der Vorhaut, durch deren Perforationen man bis zum Abschluß der Vernarbung einen Faden hin- und herzog, damit diese weiter wurden und sich nicht mehr wieder schlossen; dann brachte man einen Ring (oder eine fibula) an, der (bzw. die) die Entblößung der Eichel verhindern sollte; zumindest in manchen Fä…

Herodikos

(405 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] [1] aus Megara, Lehrer in Selymbria, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Paidotribḗs aus Megara, der sich in Selymbria niederließ, Zeitgenosse des Protagoras. Seine Geburt wurde um 500 v.Chr. angesetzt [2. 200f.], sein im Alter eingetretener Tod um 430-420 [5. 53]. Nachdem Platon ihm die Entwicklung einer neuen Therapieform zugeschrieben hatte, sah man ihn als Verf. eines kleinen Werks an [1. 979, Z.21f.], ohne zu wissen, ob er überhaupt etwas geschrieben hatte, noch gar, ob er trotz Anon. Londiniensis IX, 20-36 eine explizite, ausgearb…

Physiognomik

(627 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
[English version] (φυσιογνωμονία/ physiognōmonía, lat. physiognomia). Die Ph. stellt innerhalb der ant. Psychologie einen Komplex von Techniken dar, die durch Beobachtung von körperlichen Merkmalen und von Verhalten zur Einschätzung von Persönlichkeit und Charakter eines Menschen führen (Ps.-Aristot. phgn. 6-7). Erh. Quellen sind: die Aristoteles [6] zugeschriebene, aber wahrscheinlich auf den Peripatos und das 3. Jh. v.Chr. zurückgehende Abh. Physiognōmoniká; Polemons [6] zw. 133 und 136 n.Chr. in Anlehnung an die vorige abgefaßte Schrift, von der ei…
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