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(843 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
K. (von lat. concordare, »Eintracht herstellen«) bezeichnet seit dem 15. Jh. eine Übereinkunft zwischen Papsttum oder kath. Bischofsamt und weltlicher Gewalt über eine res mixta (»gemeinsame Angelegenheit«). Entsprechend werden seit G. W. Leibniz rückblickend auch die den Investiturstreit des 11./12. Jh.s abschließenden Vereinbarungen mit diesem Begriff gefasst.Die Vertragsmaterie in den ma. K. war weitgehend auf das Besetzungsrecht bei Bischofsstühlen und Abteien sowie auf die in diesem Zusammenhang von der röm. Kurie erhobenen Abgabenf…
Date: 2019-11-19


(952 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
Since the 15th century, the term  concordat (from Latin  concordare, “to be of one mind”) has denoted an agreement between the papacy or Catholic episcopate and secular authorities concerning a  res mixta (“common concern”). Since G.W. Leibniz, the same term has been applied retrospecively to the agreements ending the Investiture Controversy of the 11th and 12th centuries.In the medieval concordats, the concerns dealt with were largely limited to the right of appointment to episcopal sees and abbeys together with the associated fees demanded b…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,607 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] I. Originally – in accordance with its etymology – ultramontane described a nation or party on the other side of the Alps from the person using the term. Since the time of the Enlightenment, however, advocates of reform-oriented spirituality have used Ultramontanism with pejorative connotations as a polemical watchword for a reactionary ecclesiological or canonical position within the Catholic Church, papalist and Jesuitical. Parties were formed within the church: reform-oriented positions open to the Enlightenment were …

Margaret of Antioch (Saint)

(142 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] According to the legendary Passio of Theotimus, Margaret was martyred in Antioch under Diocletian (Persecutions of Christians: I). The daughter of a pagan priest, she maintained her faith and her virginity; after struggling with devils and miraculously surviving tortures, she was finally beheaded. She was venerated in the East at an early date, and her cult reached the West in the early Middle Ages. In the late Middle Ages, she gained great popularity as one of the 14 Holy Helpers (Au…

Escriva de Balaguer, Josemaria

(183 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1902, Barbastro – Jun 26, 1975, Rome), beatified, became a Catholic priest in 1925 and founded the society of Opus Dei in 1928. He remained its general president until his death and had much to do with the shaping of its characteristic profile. At the center of his work stood the notion of sanctification in everyday life and work, as well as the lay apost…

Magi, The

(584 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] According to Matt 2:1–12, μάγοι/ mágoi from the East came to the place of Jesus' birth in order to pay homage to the newborn king of the Jews. They appear to represent members of the Median-Persian caste of priests, whom the ancient world believed to be endowed with particular astronomical/astrological and prophetic skills. The account is reminiscent of a Midrash and makes use of elements borrowed from the Balaam tradition (Num 24). Pagan belief in Jesus as the Messiah pre-dated Israel's belief. From the three gifts of gold, incense, and myrrh, Origen ( Hom. Gen. 14.3) alr…

Winebrenner, John

(178 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (Mar 24, 1797, Glade Valley, MD – Sep 12, 1860, Harrisburg, PA). Educated at Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA) he was ordained in the German Reformed Church in 1820. His revivalist sympathies (Revival/Revival movements: II) led to a division in his Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, congregation, and he was removed from the Reformed Church by its synod in 1828. In 1830 he and his followers formed the Church of God, a restorationist denomination centered in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rejecting C…

Geneviève of Brabant

(113 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] Incorporating older motif-complexes, the Geneviève legend exists in four 15th- and 16th-century Latin versions and, since the 17th century, has been the popular material of numerous literary treatments. The early medieval countess palatine was falsely condemned for adultery and, along with her newborn child, banished into the wilderness until, having been found six years later by her husband on a hunt, she was able to prove her innocence. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: ActaSS, Apr. 1, 1675, 57 BHL, 5393f. On Geneviève of Brabant: A. Schneider, La légende …

Metzger, Max Joseph

(196 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1887, Schopfheim – Mar 17, 1944, Brandenburg), Catholic priest and Dr.theol. who became secretary general of the Catholic temperance movement in 1915, and co-founded the Weltfriedenswerk vom Heiligen Kreuz in 1917 (World peace ministry of the Holy Cross), as well as the Christkönigsgesellschaft in 1919/1927 (Christ the King society), which he was obliged to relocate from Graz to Meitingen in 1928; once there, he also founded the community of the Sisters of Christ the King.…

Lucia, Saint

(142 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] According to the legendary Passio (c. 500), as a virgin consecrated to Christ she was put to death by the sword, after much torture, in Syracuse during the Diocletian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I). Her supposed relics came to Metz in 970, whence her cult expanded (feast day Dec 13). The Lucia catacomb and the grave inscription of Euskia, signs of early cultic veneration, were discovered in Syracuse at the end of the 19th century. The figure of Lucia found its way into poetry, popular song, and popular piety. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: Martyrolog…

Stepinac, Aloys

(177 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (May 8, 1898, Brezarić, Croatia-Slavonia – Feb 10, 1960, Brezarić). After studying at the Collegium Germanicum in Rome, Stepinac was ordained to the priesthood in 1930; in 1934 he was appointed coadjutor and in 1937 archbishop of Zagreb. In the new state of Croatia, he called for cooperation with the Catholic fascist Ustaše (est. in 1941), who would serve as a vehicle of the spread of Catholicism throughout the Balkans, although he condemned their genocide of Serbs and Jews. Convi…

Elizabeth of the Trinity,

(133 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] born Marie-Joséphine Élisabeth Catez (Jul 18, 1880, Avord – Nov 9, 1906, Dijon), beatified; entered the Carmelites of Dijon in 1901. A number of mystical experiences and the classical spirituality of her order shaped her piety, the chief content of which was vicarious self-sacrifice in seclusion and the mystical indwelling of the Trinity in the soul. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Works: C. de Meester, ed., Oeuvres complètes, 31991; ET: I Have Found God: Complete Works, ed. C. de Meester, trans. A. Kane, 2 vols., 1984 Der Himmel ist in mir, Gesammelte Werke, vol. I, 1994 B…

Zita, Saint

(134 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (1210/1212, Monsagrati – 1278, Lucca). At the age of 12, Zita became a maid in the household of the Farinelli, which she managed superlatively until her death. Her supposedly incorrupt body became an object of veneration in San Frediano shortly after her death; her cult was approved by the local bishop and in 1696 by the papacy. She is the patron saint of servants and the city of Lucca; her vita dates from the 2nd half of the 14th century. Her feast day is Apr 27. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: ActaSS, April III, 1866, 499–527 MartRom 158f. BHL 2, 1302, no. 9019ff. On Zit…

Frohschammer, Jakob

(305 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1821, Illkofen – Jun 14, 1893, Bad Kreuth) studied Catholic theology at Munich, became Privatdozent there in 1850, associate professor in 1854, and professor of philosophy in the philosophy faculty in 1855. Frohschammer worked towards the reconciliation of Christianity and modern science. In 1857, at the instigation of J. Kleutgen, Rome placed his “generatian,” intended to combine the doctrine of creation with the theory of evolution, on the Index. From then on, Frohschammer increasingly …

Vitus, Saint

(238 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] Feast day Jun 15. Churches dedicated to St. Vitus (Patrocinia) are attested since the 6th century. A legendary 7th-century vita identifies him as a martyr during the persecution under Diocletian (Persecutions of Christians: I). The Sicilian youth, accompanied by his tutor Modestus and his foster mother Crescentia, fled to Lucania to escape his father, who wanted to force him to apostatize. After performing miracles, he was tortured by the emperor, including being placed in a kettle of boiling oil. H…


(114 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[English Version] Zita, die Heilige (1210/1212 Monsagrati – 1278 Lucca), Fest 27.4. Z. wurde mit zwölf Jahren Dienstmagd im Haus der Fatinelli, wo sie bis an ihr Lebensende vorbildlich den Haushalt führte. Ihr angeblich unversehrter Leichnam wurde bald nach ihrem Tod in S. Frediano verehrt und ihr Kult bfl., 1696 auch päpstl. approbiert. Patronin der Dienstleute und Luccas mit Vita aus der 2. Hälfte des 14.Jh. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Quellen: ActaSS April III, 1866, 499–527 MartRom 158f. BHL 2, 1302, Nr.9019ff. Über Z.: P. Pucinelli, S.Z. vergine lucchese, 1949 C. Colafran…


(194 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[English Version] Vitus, der Heilige, Fest 15.6. Seit dem 6.Jh. sind Kirchen mit seinem Patrozinium bezeugt, nach der legendarischen Vita des 7.Jh. Märtyrer in der diokletianischen Verfolgung (Christenverfolgungen: I.): Der sizilianische Jüngling sei mit seinem Erzieher Modestus und der Amme Crescentia vor seinem Vater, der ihn zum Glaubensabfall zwingen wollte, nach Lukanien geflohen. Nach Wundertaten vom Kaiser u.a. in einem Kessel mit siedendem Öl gefoltert, nach der Flucht baldiger Tod in Lukani…


(153 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[English Version] Stepinac, Aloys (8.5.1898 Brezariæ, Kroatien – 10.2.1960 ebd.), selig 1998; nach Studium am Collegium Germanicum (Rom) 1930 Priester, 1934 Koadjutor und 1937 Erzbf. von Zagreb. Er rief zur Mitarbeit im neuen kroatischen Staat (Kroatien) der faschistisch-kath. Ustaša (seit 1941) auf, durch den der Katholizismus auf dem Balkan ausgebreitet werden sollte, obwohl er dessen Genozide gegen Serben und Juden verurteilte. 1946 von den Kommunisten in einem Schauprozeß abgeurteilt und inhaft…


(1,426 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[English Version] . I. Der Begriff U. diente seiner Etym. gemäß anfangs zur Bez. der jeweils jenseits der Alpen sich befindenden Nation bzw. Partei. Seit der Aufklärungszeit wird er auch inhaltlich und pejorativ konnotiert und von Vertretern einer reformorientierten aufgeklärten Geistigkeit als polemisches Schlagwort verwendet für eine rückwärtsgewandte papalistische und jesuitisch geprägte ekklesiologische bzw. kanonistische Position innerhalb der kath. Kirche. Es kommt zur innerkirchl. Parteibild…


(89 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[English Version] Winfriedbund, 1920 von Pater Gisbert Menge OFM gegründeter rel.-kirchl. Verein mit Sitz in Paderborn, 1920 bfl. und 1923 päpstl. approbiert, der insbes. die Unterstützung von Konvertiten zur kath. Kirche zum Ziel hatte. Zunächst auch verlegerisch tätig, gab er 1928–1939 und 1950–1952 die Zeitschrift »Die Friedensstadt« und 1953–1983 »Ut omnes unum« heraus. Wegen des Rückganges der Zahl der Konversionen hilft der Verein mit seinen finanziellen Mitteln heute v.a. auch Taufbewerbern und Aussiedlern. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography E. Schröder (Die Friedens…
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