Your search for 'dc_creator:( Vera AND B. AND Moreen ) OR dc_contributor:( Vera AND B. AND Moreen )' returned 59 results & 2 Open Access results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first


(720 words)

Author(s): Moreen, Vera B.
early Judeo-Persian text from Bukhara. ḴODĀDĀD-NĀMA , the only text of historical significance known thus far from the considerable number of Judeo-Persian texts originating from late-medieval/early modern Bukhara (q.v.), also known as Bā yād-e Ḵuydodča (To the memory of Little Ḵuydod). Named after its hero, Ḵodādād (Pers. for the Heb. Natan’el ‘God gave’), often abbreviated to “Ḵoydāt” in the text, the Ḵodādād-nāma is a short narrative poem in rhymed couplets ( maṯnawi), consisting of 279 verses in the hazaj meter (see ʿARUŻ) and in the spoken dialect of Bukhara.According to Carl…
Date: 2021-08-26


(1,606 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection ( ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 643-645 JEZYA, the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection ( ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors. It was retained and implemented in most of the Muslim world in a…
Date: 2012-04-17

Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī

(489 words)

Author(s): Moreen, Vera B.
Date of Birth: 1627 Place of Birth: Isfahan Date of Death: Between 1698 and 1700 Place of Death: Isfahan Biography Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī was a famous Twelver Shīʿī jurist and theologian in Safavid Iran (1501-1722), whose exact date of death continues to be disputed. Since he was the son of an important jurist and Hadith commentator with the same last name, Muḥammad Taqī al-Majlisī (1594/5-1659/60), Muḥammad-Bāqir is known as ‘Majlisī II’ (Arabic:  Majlisī thānī; Persian: Majlisī duvvum)  Father and son are both associated with Isfahan.  As Shīʿism became truly entrenche…

 Ṣavāʿiq al-Yahūd

(607 words)

Author(s): Moreen, Vera B.
'Lightning bolts against the Jews' Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī Date: Unknown; before about 1700 Original Language: Persian Description Ṣavāʿiq al-Yahūd, one of Muḥammad-Bāqir al-Majlisī’s short Persian treatises, details the duties incumbent upon the  ahl-i kitāb (‘People of the Book’) living in a Muslim, in this case, Shīʿī, environment. It may have been inspired by his father Muḥammad Taqī al-Majlisī’s possibly less well-known treatise,  Rawḍat al-muttaqīn (‘The garden of the pious’), later known as  Lawāmeʿ -e ṣāḥeb-qerānī (‘The censure of the lord of the happy co…


(253 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
ʿ Abbās-nāma (The Book [Chronicle] of ʿAbbās) by Muḥammad Ṭāhir Waḥīd Qazwīnī is the most important Iranian source for the history of the reign of the Ṣafavid Shah ʿAbbās II (1642–1666), covering events up to 1663. It is the only Iranian source, however brief, on the persecution of Iranian Jewry between 1656 and 1661. According to the ʿ Abbās-nāma, two Jews from Isfahan aroused the ire of the Shīʽī Muslim community by their failure to wear the badges indicating that they were Jews (see ghiyār ), thereby posing a threat for unknowing Muslims of contact with impurity ( najāsat ). The Jewish com…

Ṣafavid Dynasty

(166 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
see Iran/PersiaVera B. MoreenBibliographyFischel, Walter J., Jews in the Economic and Political Life of Mediaeval Islam ( London: Royal Asiatic Society Monographs, no. 22, 1937).Gil, Moshe, Jews in Islamic Countries in the Middle Ages (Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 241-248, 520-532.Goitein, S. D,  A Mediterranean Society:  The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza.  6 vols.  (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978) [Reprint 1999].Al-Iṣfahānī, Abū Nuʿaym,  Ḏikr aḵbari- Iṣfahān (Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1931), 1: 22-23.Al-Iṣṭakhrī, I…

Amīnā, Benjamin ben Mishaʾel

(301 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Benjamin ben Mishaʾel, known by the pen name Amīnā (Pers. the faithful), was one of the most important Jewish poets of premodern Iran. A native of Kashan, he was born in 1672/73 and was alive as late as 1732/33. The only biographical information about him is provided by the poet himself in various works, namely, that he had seven children and was unhappily married. He witnessed the Afghan invasion of Iran, including his hometown, as described in the Judeo-Persian chronicle Kitāb-i Sar-Guzasht-i Kāshān dar bāb-i ʿibrī va goyimi-yi sānī (The Book of Events in Kashan Concerning…


(438 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Khudāidād, also known as Bā yād-i Khuydodcha ['To the Memory of Little Khuydod'], is the only text of historical import to have come to light out so far from the trove of Judeo-Persian texts produced in Bukhara. Named after its hero, Khudāidād (Persian for the Hebrew "Netanʾel" ['God gave']), this short masnavī (narrative poem in rhymed couplets), is only 279 verses long and it is written in the hazaj meter in the Bukharan dialect. Khudāidād is essentially an account of the martyrdom of a simple cloth merchant whose strong faith enabled him to withstand the persecution of…

Bābāī ben Farhād

(573 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Bābāī b. Farhād is the author of Kitāb-i Sar-Guzasht-i Kāshān dar bāb-i ʿIbrī va Goyimi-yi Sānī (The Book of Events in Kashan Concerning the Jews; Their Second Conversion), the second Judeo-Persian chronicle in verse known thus far. It covers selected events between 1721 and 1731 during the reigns of the Ṣafavid shahs (see Iran/Persia) Sultan Ḥusayn (1694-1722) and Ṭahmāsp II (1722-1731). Bābāī b. Farhād acknowledges that his inspiration to record mostly contemporary events, some of which he witnessed, came from Kitāb-i A nusī (The Book of a Forced Convert), the first …

Bābāī ben Luṭf

(676 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Bābāī b. Luṭf, the author of Kitāb-i A nusī (The Book of a Forced Convert), the earliest known Judeo-Persian chronicle, lived in Kashan and was probably a native of that town. Most of what we know about him comes from his sketchy introduction to the chronicle. Clearly an educated man, Bābāī b. Luṭf believed that the major persecutions he witnessed, beginning in 1656 and ending in 1662, during the reign of the Ṣafavid Shah ʿAbbās II (1642-1666), constituted but another chapter in the long history of persecutions endured by the Jewish people. He therefore called his work a megillah (Heb. scrol…

ʿAbbās II, Shah

(505 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642–1666), the grandson of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1620), was the most competent monarch of the Ṣafavid dynasty of Iran next to his illustrious ancestor. Only eight and a half years old when he ascended the throne, ʿAbbās II asserted himself early by curbing the Turcoman (Qizilbāsh) tribes, the early “power behind the throne” of the Ṣafavid dynasty. He continued the effort to increase and concentrate the power of the crown and to maintain the frontiers of his empire. Like his grandfather, but not on the same scale, ʿAbbās I, enhanced Isfahan with new palaces and repairs…

Allāhverdī Khān [II]

(171 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Allāhverdī Khān [II] (d. 1662) was a high-ranking military officer of Armenian origin in the service of Shah Ṣafī I (r. 1629–1642) and Shāh ʿAbbās II (r. 1642–1666) of Iran. In 1654 he advanced from the post of amīr shikār bāshī (Pers./Turk. master of the royal hunts) to sardār-i lashkar (Pers. commander-in-chief) of the army, thereafter distinguishing himself in campaigns against the Ottomans, Mughals, Uzbeks, and Georgians. He was instrumental in bringing about the downfall of Muḥammad Beg, the grand vizier who, according to the Judeo-Persian chronicle of Bābāī ibn Luṭf, was resp…

Razim, Sefer ha-

(306 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Sefer ha-Razim (Heb. The Book of Secrets) is a collection of spells, incantations, angelology, and magical remedies intended to be used for such purposes as acquiring power over humans, spirits, and nature. The texts included in the collection originated in the fourth and fifth centuries C.E. Scholars continue to debate whether Sefer ha-Razim is an actual book; in its present form it is a scholarly compilation by Mordecai Margulies. Some of its contents come from Sefer Raziʾel ha-Malakh (Heb. The Book of the Angel Raziʾel), a conjuring book compiled in the thirteenth cen…

Kitāb-i Anusī

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Kitāb-i A nusī (The Book of a Forced Convert) by Bābāī ben Luṭf, the first known Judeo-Persian chronicle, recounts the periodic persecutions of Iranian Jews between 1617 and 1662, together with a few other events from the Ṣafavid era (1501–1736), specifically from the reigns of Shahs ʿAbbās I (1581–1629), Ṣafī I (1629–1642), and ʿAbbās II (1642–1666). The historicity of Kitāb-i Anusī is confirmed by its references to external events that can be corroborated by royal Iranian chronicles and other sources, but its emphasis is on the travails of Iranian Jewr…

Ismāʽīl I, Shāh

(397 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Shāh Ismāʽīl I (r. 1501–1524), the founder of the Ṣafavid dynasty in Iran, was a precocious warrior and Ṣūfī murshīd (Ar./Pers. spiritual guide) crowned king at the age of fourteen. Descended from a well-established Turcoman Ṣūfī brotherhood from Ardabīl (Azerbaijan), he managed to defeat powerful Turcoman and Uzbek tribes because of his personal bravery and, principally, the fanatical devotion of his Turcoman followers, derisively termed qizilbāsh (Turk. red head[s]) by the Ottomans because of the twelve-fold turban wrapped around a red baton that symbolized…

Ibrāhīm ibn Mullah Abū ʾl-Khayr

(164 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
The short Judeo-Persian masnavī (narrative poem in rhymed couplets) known as Khudāidād does not bear an author’s name. According to Carl Salemann, its author was Ibrāhīm b. Mullah Abū ʾl-Khayr, about whom we lack any biographical information beyond the fact that he also wrote several other poems known thus far only by their titles. Scholars believe that Khudāidād was most likely written toward the end of the eighteenth century, possibly during the reign of the Bukhārān chieftain Amīr Maʿṣūm (d. 1802), although the events it recounts are yet to be corroborated. Khudāidād describes the …


(2,660 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
1. General Description and HistoryThe Jewish community of Isfahan is one of the oldest in Iran. Although its long history cannot be reconstructed in full, there are enough data to sketch some of it, at least after the Arab conquest, which is more than can be done with most Jewish settlements in Iran.Isfahan (Old Pers. Aspadana), located on the Iranian Plateau, is surrounded by the Zagros Mountains and its extensions. About 340 kilometers (211 miles) south of Tehran, Isfahan is the capital of the province of Isfahan and Iran's third-largest city a…

Academic Study of Iranian (Persian) Jewry

(3,667 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Like the study of Ottoman Jewry, the academic study of Iranian (Persian) Jewry is a subfield of the study of the Jews in the Islamic and Mizraḥi (“eastern”) worlds. It originated in the study of Iranian linguistics in the late nineteenth century and began to grow in the late 1960s with the spread of the study of Judeo-Persian texts. It expanded considerably for the next three decades, but remains a neglected field of Jewish and Iranian studies, with hardly any younger scholars entering the field.Philology and LinguisticsThe study of the Judeo-Persian language began as a number of…

ʽĀlamārā-yi Ἁbbāsi, Tārīkh-i

(308 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Tārīkh-i ʿ Ālamārā-yi Ἁbbāsī by Iskandar Beg Munshī (d. ca. 1632) is the most important work of Iranian historiography on the Ṣafavid era (1501–1722). While the introduction briefly discusses the reigns of Shahs Ismāʽīl I (1501–1524), Ṭahmāsp (1524–1576), Ismāʽīl II (1576–1578), and Muḥammad Khudābanda (1578–1587), it is mainly devoted to a detailed and spirited description of the reign of Shah ʽAbbās I (“the Great”; 1571–1629). As a royal secretary, Iskandar Beg Munshī observed many of the events he described and sought to acquire reliable information.…

Allāhverdī Khān [I]

(290 words)

Author(s): Vera B. Moreen
Allāhverdī Khān, (d. 1613) was one of the most important courtiers of Shah 'Abbās I (r. 1581-1629). A Georgian or Armenian Christian by origin, he had been enslaved by the Safavids in his youth and became a trusted soldier. After converting to Islam, he rose to the rank of qullār āghāsī (Turk. general of the slave army) and was appointed governor of the provinces of Fars and Koghīluya. Having distinguished himself in battles against the Uzbeks with an army he had reorganized along European lines as suggested by Sir Robert Shirley. Allāhverdī Kh…
▲   Back to top   ▲