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Graecus

(71 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γραικός; Graikós). According to Hes. fr. 5, 3 M.-W., the son of Zeus and Pandora (or the brother of Latinus, though according to Theog. 1013 the latter's mother is Circe) and the eponymous hero of the Greeks before they acquired the name Hellenes from  Hellen. The name suggests an Illyrian origin [1]. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Chantraine, s.v. G., 234. P. Dräger, Untersuchungen zu den Frauenkatalogen Hesiods, 1997, 27-42.

Cinaethon

(132 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κιναίθων; Kinaíthōn). Epic poet from Sparta, thought to have lived in the 7th or 6th cent. BC. Nothing of his works survives in the original, but testimonia indicate that their basic characteristic was the representation of genealogies. A reference in the Tabulae Iliacae names C. as the author of an Oedipodea. Jer. Chron. 4,2, names him also as the author of a Telegonia, but traditionally this epic poem is associated with Eugammon. It is uncertain whether C. also wrote an epic on Heracles; an even more dubious claim, found in a scholion to …

Maron

(167 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρων; Márōn). Priest of Apollo in the Thracian city of Ismarus; first mentioned in the Cicones episode in the Odyssey: For being spared during a plundering raid by Odysseus' warriors, M. gives Odysseus amongst other things a heavy wine as a present, with which Odysseus can later stun the Cyclops (Hom. Od. 9,39-61; 196-211). M.'s name appears to be derived from the name of the Thracian city of Maronea [1] whose environs were known for good wine (Hom. Od. 9,45; Archil. fr. 2); a nu…

Hippasus

(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …

Cometes

(154 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
(Κομήτης; Komḗtēs). [German version] [1] Lover of Aegiale(ia) Lover of  Aegiale(ia) wife of  Diomedes [1], the Achaean warrior at Troy. After Diomedes' return, C. tries to kill him; when Diomedes manages to save himself by finding refuge at an altar to Athena, C. leaves his homeland Argus (schol. Hom. Il. 5, 412). Mimnermus appears to have developed the structure of this myth as a parallel to the fate of  Agamemnon (fr. 17 G.-P.; cf. also Apollod. Epit. 6,9). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of the Aetolian king Thestius According to Paus. 8,45,6 son of the Aetolian ki…

Mecisteus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μηκιστεύς; Mēkisteús). Son of the mythical king Talaus of Argos, brother of Adrastus [1]. In the ‘Iliad he is only mentioned as the victor in boxing at Oedipus' funeral games (Hom. Il. 23,678-680; likewise in Paus. 1,28,7). A passage in Herodotus (Hdt. 5,67), according to which he was killed by Melanippus together with Tydeus, indicates that his name was among the ‘Seven against Thebes’. However, Aischyl. Sept. 488 names Hippomedon [1], another son of Talaus (as does Apollod. 3,63…

Caeneus

(110 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Καινεύς; Kaineús, Lat. Caeneus). The name of a Lapith ruler, father of the Argonaut  Coronus. In early Greek mythology, this figure is clearly only connected to centauromachy. Because C. is invulnerable, the  Centaurs destroy him by ramming him into the earth with trees and stones (first recorded by Pind. fr. 167). His story is later elaborated on whereby C. was originally a girl (Lat. Caenis) who was raped by Poseidon and then requests that he change her into a man (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1.57-64a; Ov. Met. 12.169-209; 459-535). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography F. Böme…

Carcinus

(585 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Καρκίνος; Karkínos). [German version] [1] Cancer, the crab that was turned into a sign of the zodiac for biting Heracles in the foot at the behest of Hera while fighting the Hydra (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 11). The Alexandrian month of Karkinon (Καρκινών) was named after it. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Epic poet C. of Naupactus, epic poet of the archaic period. In Paus. 10,38,11 C. is named, with reference to Charon of Lampsacus, as the author of the Ναυπάκτια ἔπη ( Naupáktia épē), evidently a history of this town, lying at the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf…

Hekebolos

(91 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἑκηβόλος; Hekēbólos). Epic epithet for  Apollo in his role as an archer (Hom. Il. 1,14 et passim), for  Artemis in early Greek texts only attested in the Nikandre inscription (SEG 19, 507 5); later with a considerably widened field of reference. In antiquity understood as ‘hitting far away into the distance’ (for ἑκάς and βάλλειν) (schol. T for Hom. Il. 1,14; cf. Aesch. Eum. 628: τόξοις ἑκηβόλοισιν), more probable is a derivation from ἑκών (roughly: ‘hitting at will’). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography Frisk, s.v. H. Chantraine, s.v. H.

Itonus

(102 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). Father of  Boeotus (only in Diod. Sic. 4,67,7 his son); eponym of the town of  Iton, situated close to Coronea in Boeotia, with an important sanctuary of Athena Itonia [1]. The homonymous place and sanctuary in Thessaly (situated between Larisa and Pherae) is an important indication of the conquest and settlement of Boeotia, starting from the north, which allegedly began sixty years after the fall of Troy (Thuc. 1,12,3). I. is, however, mentioned as eponymous hero only in connection with Boeotian settlement. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Ilioneus

(67 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰλιονεύς; Ilioneús). Trojan warrior, son of a farmer by the name of Phorbas who was very wealthy due to his close connection to  Hermes; killed in battle by  Peneleus, the Minyaean prince (Hom. Il. 14,487-507). Virgil uses this name for the oldest leader of the Trojan refugees (A. 1,521 et passim). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 161.

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Cassiphone

(117 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κασσιφόνη, Kassiphónē, ‘Fratricide’). Daughter of  Odysseus and of  Circe, therefore sister of  Telegonus. C. is mentioned in description at Lycoph. 807ff.; the name itself is mentioned only in the Commentary of Tzetzes. This figure is probably a late classical or Hellenistic invention, intended to expand the structure of Telegonia: there Telegonus, whom he does not know, kills his father Odysseus and marries his stepmother Penelope; Telemachus, on the other hand, marries his step…

Hellen

(137 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕλλην; Héllēn). Eponymous progenitor of the Hellenes, therefore of the entirety of the inhabitants of Greece; the individual tribes took their names from H.'s sons and grandsons  Dorus,  Xuthus (father of  Ion and  Achaeus [1]) and  Aeolus [1].  Pyrrha and either  Deucalion (Hes. fr. 2; schol. Hes. Op. 158a; Thuc. 1,3,12; Diod. Sic. 4,60,2) or Zeus (schol. Pl. Symp. 208d; Apollod. 1,49) are named as H.'s parents. In the Homeric catalogue of ships the Hellenes inhabit only a small …

Hyrtacus

(87 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ὕρτακος; Hýrtakos). Named in the Trojan allies' catalogue of the Iliad as father of Asius, who was the ruler over Arisbe at the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,835-839). H. himself only appears in Asius' patronymic information; his name is possibly to be connected with a Cretan town by the name of Hyrtacina. A hero of the same name appears in Virgil's Aeneid as the father of Nisus (Verg. Aen. 9,176f.). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography Kamptz, 313f. P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 325.

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Guneus

(133 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γουνεύς; Gouneús). Leader of the 28th contingent described in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,748-755). His territory, clearly defined by the place names Kyphos and Dodona as well as the tribal names of the Aenianes and Peraebians, comprises approximately the centre of the Pindus Massif and links Thessaly with Epirus. In the epic Kyklos, G. then only reappears in the  Nostoi; here it told of a shipwreck off the coast of Cape Caphereus, perhaps also of migration to Libya…

Geryoneus

(453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γηρυονεύς; Gēryoneús; also Geryónēs, Geryṓn, Γηρυόνης, Γηρυών; Etruscan Cerun). Mythical giant with three heads and three bodies, residing on the island  Erytheia in the far west of the inhabited world (later generally identified with Gadeira/Cadiz: Hdt. 4,8, et al., in Ptolemy's Geographia 4,1,16, identified with Mauretania, euhemeristically relocated to Ambracia by Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 26), where he tends an especially splendid breed of red cattle. His father is Chrysaor, originated from Medusa, and his mother, an  Oceanid (Callirhoe). In the Greek myth, G.…
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