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Ḳubači

(294 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, self-designation, Urbug̲h̲; Russian, Kubačintsi̊; Arabie and Persian, Zirihgarān), a people of the eastern Caucasus. The Ḳubači inhabit the single aul of Ḳubači, located in Dak̲h̲adaev rayon , Dāg̲h̲istān. They are a Caucasie people whose language belongs with Ḳaytaḳ and Dargin to the Dargino-Lak (Lak-Dargwa) group of the Ibero-Caucasian language family. Ḳubači is now regarded as a dialect of the Dargin language, and they are considered in the Soviet Union as a sub-group of Dargins rather than as a…

Rutul

(794 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, a people of Dāg̲h̲istān in the eastern Caucasus. Until the Soviet period the Rutuls lacked a common ethnic self-designation, but rather referred to themselves by village ( aul ) or as members of the Rutul Magal . The Rutul Magal was one of the numerous free societies or clan federations found in Dāg̲h̲istān prior to the Soviet period. This is one of the few cases where all of the members of a given ethnic group belonged to the same free society. In addition to the Rutuls, who dominated this free society, a n…

Kwanadi

(217 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation—Kwantl hekua or Bagolal; Russian designation—Bagulali̊, but Kvanadinskiy yazi̊k for language), a people of the eastern Caucasus. Kwanadi forms, with Andi, Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲, Botlik̲h̲, Čamalal, Godoberi, Ḳarata and Tindi, the Andi division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. Their population was 3,054 according to the 1926 Soviet census. The Kwanadi inhabit the auls of K̲h̲us̲h̲tada, Kwanada (Tsumada region), Gimerso, Tisi, Tlibis̲h̲o (Ak̲h̲wak̲h̲ region) south of the bend of the Andi Ḳoysu in the Dāg̲h̲is…

Laḳ

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation: Laḳ, Laḳuču; Russian variants: Lak(tsi), Kazikumuk̲h̲(tsi); Avar: Tumaw, pl. Tumal; Lezg: Yak̲h̲ols̲h̲u: Dargin: Vuluguni, Vulečuni; other: Ḳaziḳumuk̲h̲ [from Arabic G̲h̲āzī, warrior for the faith, and Ḳumuk̲h̲, the political and cultural centre of the Laḳ territory, see Ḳumuḳ]), a Muslim people of the Caucasus. The Laḳ language belongs with Dargin, Ḳaytaḳ and Ḳubači [ q.vv.] to the Dargino-Laḳ (Laḳ-Dargwa) group of the Northeast-Caucasian language family. There are five dialects of the Laḳ language, As̲h̲ti Ḳuli, Balk̲h̲ar, Vits…

Kürin

(48 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, designation used by the Ottomans in the 10th/16th century and by the Russians in the 18th-19th centuries for the Lezg̲h̲ins [ q.v.]. Kürin (Russian: Kürinskiy yazi̊k) is also the former designation ¶ for the Lezg̲h̲in language, and appears as such in the 1926 Soviet census. (R. Wixman)

Ḳaytaḳ

(706 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, Kaydaḳlan, pl. Kaydaḳ: Russ. K̲h̲aydaki, Kaytagi, Kaytaki, Karakaytaki; other forms, K̲h̲aytaḳ, Ḳaytak̲h̲, Ḳara Ḳaytak̲h̲), a small Dāg̲h̲istān [ q.v.] group, which forms with Ḳubači [ q.v.] and Dargin [ q.v.] the Dargin division of the Dargino-Lak group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. ¶ According to the census of 1926, ethnically there were 14,430 Ḳaytaḳs, and 14,469 claiming Ḳaytaḳ as their mother tongue: in 1930 (estimation by Grande) there were 14,470 Ḳaytaḳs. The Ḳaytaḳs inhabit ten aul s in the Kaytak district, and the sou…

K̲h̲ems̲h̲in

(134 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(other designation, K̲h̲ems̲h̲ili), a numerically small group of Muslim (Sunnī) Armenians who had been converted from Christianity in the beginning of the 18th century. In the U.S.S.R. (population 629, according to the 1926 Soviet census), they now inhabit the Black Sea coast near the Turkish border. In Turkey they live in compact settlements along the Fîrtînî and Karadere rivers (Bas̲h̲ K̲h̲ems̲h̲in) and in the mountains not far from Hope (Hope K̲h̲ems̲h̲in). The traditional economy is based on…

K̲h̲inalug

(164 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation: Kättitturdur; Russian, K̲h̲inalug [from the aul -K̲h̲inalug]), a people of the eastern Caucasus. K̲h̲inalug is a numerically small ethnical group, which forms an independent branch of the Northeastern Ibero-Caucasian language group. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were (ethnically) 105 K̲h̲inalugs, and linguistically 1,540. The K̲h̲inalugs are Sunnī Moslems of the S̲h̲āfiʿī rite. The K̲h̲inalugs inhabit the aul K̲h̲inalug on the upper right arm of the Kudial-chay, in the Mount S̲h̲ak̲h̲dag̲h̲ area of Konak̲h̲kend rayon (Azer…

K̲h̲aputs

(190 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(Russian designation—K̲h̲aputtsi̊, Gaputlintsi̊, K̲h̲aputlintsi̊ (from the aul K̲h̲aput); other designation—K̲h̲aputli). a small Caucasian ethnical group, forming with the Ḳri̊z [ q.v.] and the Ḏz̲hek the Dzhek subdivision of the Samurian group (Lezhgin, Agul, Rutul, Tsak̲h̲ur, Tabasaran, Buduk̲h̲, Dzhek) of the Northeastern Ibero-Caucasian language family. According to the Soviet census, in 1926 there were ethnically 12 K̲h̲aputs, and linguistically 4,284 (including speakers of Ḏz̲hek and Ḳri̊z dialects); in 1933 (estimation) there were …

K̲h̲inalug

(174 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(dans leur propre langue: Kättitturdur; en russe: Ḵh̲inalug [de l’ aul k̲h̲inalug]), petit groupe ethnique dont la langue forme une branche indépendante du groupe linguistique ibérocaucasien du Nord-est. D’après le recensement soviétique de 1926, il y avait, du point de vue ethnique, 105 Ḵh̲inalugs et, du point de vue linguistique, 1540; ce sont des Musulmans sunnites de l’école s̲h̲āfiʿite. Ils habitent l’ aul k̲h̲inalug situé sur le bras droit supérieur du Kudyal-čay, dans la région du mont S̲h̲ak̲h̲dag̲h̲. district de Konak̲h̲kend (R.S.S. de l’Ād̲h̲arba…

Ḳubači

(303 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, peuple du Caucase oriental qui se désigne lui-même sous le nom d’Urbug̲h̲ (russe Kubačintsi̊; arabe et persan Zirihgārān); il habite l’ aul de Ḳubači, dans le rayon de Dak̲h̲adaev, au Dāg̲h̲istān. Ce peuple caucasien parle une langue appartenant, avec le ḳaytaḳ et le dargin, au groupe dargino-lak (lak-dargwa) de la famille ibéro-caucasienne. Le ḳubači passe aujourd’hui pour un dialecte du dargin, et le peuple qui le parle est considéré, en Union soviétique, comme une subdivision des Dargins plutôt que comme un groupe et…

Lezg̲h̲

(979 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, peuple musulman du Caucase (sg. Lezg̲h̲i, pl. Lezg̲h̲iar; russe: Lezgintsi̊, Kyurintsi̊; autres désignations: Lezg, Lezgin, Kürin). Sa langue appartient, avec l’agul, le rutul, le tsak̲h̲ur. le tabasaran, le buduk̲h̲, le k̲h̲inalug, le ḳri̊z, le dz̲h̲ek, le k̲h̲aput et l’udi, au groupe samurien de la famille Nord-caucasienne (čečeno-lezgien); elle comprend trois dialectes étroitement apparentés qui ont tous été fortement influencés par le turc azéri: le kürin (günei) et l’ak̲h̲ti̊ parlés dans …

Kürin

(50 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, appellation utilisée par les Ottomans au XVIe siècle et par les Russes aux XVIIIe et XIXe pour désigner les Lezghiens [voir Lezg̲h̲in]. Kürin (russe: Kürinskiy yazi̊k) est également l’ancien nom de la langue des Lezg̲h̲iens et apparaît comme tel dans le recensement soviétique de 1926. (R. Wixman)

Ḳaytaḳ

(766 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(dans leur propre langue: Kaydaḳlan, pi. Kaydaḳ; en russe, Ḵh̲aydaki, Kaytagi, Kaytaki, Karakaytaki; autres désignations: Ḵh̲aytaḳ, Ḳay-tak̲h̲, Ḳara-Ḳaytak̲h̲) petit groupe d’habitants du Dāg̲h̲istān dont la langue forme avec celle des groupes Ḳubači [ q.v.] et Dargin [ q.v.] la division dargin du groupe dargino-laḳ des langues ibéro-caucasiennes. D’après le recensement de 1926, il y avait, du point de vue ethnique, 14430 Ḳaytaḳs et 14469 personnes déclarant que le ḳaytaḳ était leur langue maternelle; il y en avait 14470 en 1930 selon l’estimation de Grande. Ils habitent dix auls

K̲h̲vars̲h̲ī

(314 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(d’après eux-mêmes: Kedaes hikwa,Ḵh̲uani, Ḵh̲vars̲h̲al: en russe: Ḵh̲vars̲h̲intsi̊), groupe ethnique du Caucase dont la langue forme, avec le bez̲h̲eta, le dido, le ginuk̲h̲ et le k̲h̲unzal [ q.vv.], la division dido du groupe avare-andi-dido des langues ibéro-caucasiennes du Nord-est. D’après le recensement soviétique de 1926, il y avait, du point de vue ethnique, 1019 Ḵh̲vars̲h̲is. dont 1018 indiquaient que le k̲h̲vars̲h̲i était leur langue maternelle. Us habitaient précédemment cinq auls (réunissant Ḵh̲vars̲h̲is et Ink̲h̲oraris) sur le cours supérieur de l’Ori…

Ḳri̊z

(217 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(en russe Kri̊zi̊ [de l’ aul ḳri̊z]), petit groupe ethnique du Caucase dont la langue forme, avec le k̲h̲aput et le d̲z̲hek, la subdivision d̲z̲hek du groupe samurien (lezghien, agul, rutul, t̲s̲ak̲h̲ur. tabasaran, buduk̲h̲. d̲z̲hek) de la famille des langues ibéro-caucasiennes du Nord-est. D’après le recensement soviétique de 1926, il y avait, du point de vue ethnique, 5 Ḳri̊z et, du point de vue linguistique, 4348 (y compris les individus parlant les dialectes d̲z̲h̲ek et k̲h̲aput); selon une estimation de 1954, il y avait quelques centaines de Ḳri̊z vivant dans un seul aul ḳri̊z sit…

Ḳapuča

(247 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, groupe qui se désigne lui-même sous le nom de Ḳapučya suko ou Bez̲h̲tlas suko (en russe: Kapučini̊ ou Bez̲h̲itini̊) et parle une langue formant, avec le dido, le ginuk̲h̲, le k̲h̲unzal et le k̲h̲vars̲h̲i [ q.vv.], la division dido de l’ensemble avar-andi-dido des langues ibéro-caucasiennes du Nord-est. Selon le recensement soviétique de 1926, ce groupe comptait 1 448 personnes. Les Ḳapuča habitent les auls de Bez̲h̲iti, Ḵh̲očark̲h̲ota et Tly̲a̲dal dans le bassin supérieur du Koysu avar (district de Tly̲a̲rata) dans la RSSA du Dāg̲h̲istān. Vivant dans des v…

K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊

(306 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation, Kedaes hikwa, K̲h̲uani, K̲h̲vars̲h̲al; in Russian, K̲h̲vars̲h̲intsi̊) an ethnic group in the Caucasus whose language forms, with Bez̲h̲eta, Ginuk̲h̲, Dido and K̲h̲unzal [ qq.v.] the Dido division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group of the north-eastern Ibero-Caucasian languages. According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were 1,019 ethnic K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊s. of whom 1,018 gave K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊ as their maternal tongue. They formerly lived in five auls (including K̲h̲vars̲h̲i̊ and Ink̲h̲orari) on the upper course of the Ori-Tsḳalis…

Lezg̲h̲

(980 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation: Lezg̲h̲i, pl. Lezg̲h̲iar; Russian variants: Lezgintsy, Kyurintsy; others: Lezg, Lezgin, Kürin), a Muslim people of the Caucasus. The Lezg̲h̲ language belongs with Agul, Rutul, Tsak̲h̲ur, Tabasaran, Buduk̲h̲, K̲h̲inalug, Ḳri̊z, Dhzek, K̲h̲aput and Udi to the Samurian group of the Northeast-Caucasian (Čečeno-Lezgian) language family. The Lezg̲h̲ language is comprised of three closely-related dialects, all of which have been strongly influenced by the Azeri Turkish language, sc. Kürin (Günei) and …

K̲h̲unzal

(270 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, K̲h̲unzami; Russian designations K̲h̲unzali̊, Gun(d)zali̊, Gunzebi, Gunzibtsi̊, Enzebi, Nak̲h̲ad; other designations, K̲h̲unzeb, Gunzeb), a numerically small people of the eastern Caucasus. K̲h̲unzal forms with Bez̲h̲eta, Dido, Ginuk̲h̲ and K̲h̲vars̲h̲i [ qq.v.], the Dido division of the Avar-Andi-Dido group, of the north-eastern Ibero-Caucasian languages. According to the Soviet census, in 1926 there were, ethnically, 106 K̲h̲unzals, and 129 claiming K̲h̲unzal as their mother tongue; in 1933 (estimation by Grande) there…
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