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Vorlesung

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
1. BegriffDie Unterrichtsform der V. war mit dem höheren Bildungs-Wesen ( Universitäten, gymnasia illustria, Fürstenschulen, Ritterakademien) von Beginn an eng verbunden und charakterisiert bis heute eine zentrale akademische Vermittlungsmethode. Sie ist in der Regel den abschließend graduierten Lehrenden im Rang eines Professors vorbehalten.Der in der Vormoderne verwendete lat. Begriff lectio für die V. resultiert aus der Kommunikationsform des frontalen Unterrichts, in dem der jeweils aktuelle Standard des Wissens konzentriert dargelegt wird. Analoge Vermittl…
Date: 2019-11-19

Winckelmann

(323 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] 1.Johannes , (1551 Homberg – 13.8.1626 Gießen), ev. Theologe. Ausbildung als Schmied, seit 1568 Studium in Marburg. 1573 Rektor der Stadtschule in Homberg/Efze. 1576 Fortsetzung der Studien in Marburg, 1582 Hofprediger in Kassel und 1592 o.Prof. in Marburg sowie Prediger an der Marienkirche. 1607 abgesetzt und nach Gießen berufen, war W. Mitbegründer des Paedagogiums und der Universität, 1607 o.Prof., seit 1610 Superintendent. Im Kenosis-Streit (kenotische Christologie) Gegner so…

Scultetus

(109 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] Scultetus, Johann (eigentlich Anton Schultze, lat. A. Prätorius; geb. in der Grafschaft Lippe – 6.12.1613 Laudenbach), ref. Theologe. Um 1589 Diakonus in Oppenheim, um 1595 Pfarrer in Dittelsheim, 1596 in Offenbach/Main, Hofprediger des Grafen von Wittgenstein in Birstein, 1598 Pfarrer in Laudenbach. Wandte sich 1597 gegen die Verhaftung von vier der Hexerei beschuldigten Frauen. Markus Wriedt Bibliography Werke: Gründlicher Bericht von Zauberey und Zauberern, 1598 Über S.: AGL 6, 1787, 786 H. Steitz, Gesch. der ev. Kirche in Hessen und Nassau, B…

Steuber

(154 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] Steuber,  Johannes (16.1.1590 Schickardshausen, Oberhessen – 5.2.1643 Marburg), luth. Theologe. 1614 Prof. für Physik in Gießen, 1617 auch für Griech., 1620 Prof. für Theol. und Hebr., 1624 aufgrund der Verlegung der Universität Prof. für Theol. in Marburg und Pfarrer an St. Elisabeth, 1625 Universitätsbibliothekar, 1627 Stipendiatenephorus. Auf Befehl Landgraf Ludwigs V. war er 1624 bei der Wiederherstellung der luth. Konfession im Marburger Land beteiligt, ebenso 1627 auf Anweis…

Neuser

(220 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] Neuser, Adam (um 1530 Gunzenhausen, Franken – 12.10.1576 Konstantinopel), ev.-nonkonformer Theologe. Seit 1560 zweiter Prediger an St. Peter in Heidelberg, wehrte er sich nach dem Konfessionswechsel in der Kurpfalz gegen die Presbyterialordnung und Kirchenzucht nach Genfer Vorbild. 1569 darum an die Hl. Geist Kirche versetzt, geriet N. zunehmend in den Verdacht des Antitrinitarismus (Antitrinitarier). In Speyer übergab N. 1570 auf dem Reichstag Briefe an Sultan Selim II. mit der B…

Scultetus

(172 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] Scultetus,  Abraham (24.8.1566 Grünberg, Schlesien – 24.10.1625 Emden), ref. Theologe. Studium 1588 in Wittenberg und 1590 in Heidelberg, 1594 Diakonus in Schriesheim, 1595 Schloßkaplan in Heidelberg, 1598 Pfarrer der Franziskanerkirche und 1600 Kirchenrat; Reformen des Schulwesens in der Oberpfalz und in der Grafschaft Hanau-Münzenberg, der ref. Kirche Nordwestdeutschlands sowie in Brandenburg. 1612 Feldprediger des Herzogs von Anhalt; 1614 Hofprediger in Heidelberg, 1618 Prof. f…

Lecture

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
1. ConceptFrom the beginning, the lecture as a form of instruction was closely associated with the institutions of higher education (Bildung: universities, gymnasia illustria, Fürstenschulen, knight academies), and to this day it remains a key method of conveying knowledge in academic contexts. In Germany and most of Europe, it was and still is generally reserved for fully qualified graduate teachers of the academic rank of Professor (American ‘full professor’).The Latin term lectio used in premodern times resulted from the form of communication of frontal instr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Feurborn, Justus

(226 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Nov 13, 1587, Herborn – Feb 6, 1656, Gießen), Protestant theologian. In 1612, he began studying in Gießen, where he earned his Magister in ¶ 1614 and his Dr. Theol. in 1616, and was appointed associate professor, preacher, and ephorus of the scholarship holders in 1617. Following the transfer of the University to Marburg in 1624, he became its first professor of theology in 1627. In this function, he also officiated as the first rector of the University of Gießen following its restitution in 1650. He was…

Kassel, University

(108 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] In 1633 Landgrave William V of Hessen elevated the Collegium Adelphicum to the status of a territorial university in compensation for the university in Marburg, which had taken the Lutheran side. When the latter returned to the Reformed fold, the two institutions were combined in Marburg in 1653 and teaching came to an end in Kassel. On Oct 25, 1971, the Gesamthochschule Kassel (now Universität Gesamthochschule Kassel) opened its doors. Markus Wriedt Bibliography W. Falkenheiner, Die Annalen und die Matrikel der Universität Kassel, ZVHG.S 18, 1893 N. Kluge et al., eds…

Muth, Placidus

(222 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (baptismal name Johann Kaspar; Dec 30, 1753, Poppenhausen, near Schweinfurt – Mar 28, ¶ 1821, Erfurt), OSB, theologian. After attending school in Würzburg and Erfurt he studied from 1771 in Erfurt. In 1777 he entered the Petersberg Benedictine monastery, was ordained priest in 1783, became lector there in 1785, and in 1788 Dr.theol. and university professor of moral and pastoral theology. From 1794 to the time of secularization he was abbot of his monastery; from 1803 to 1813 rector, from 1809 …

Neuser, Adam

(227 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (c. 1530, Gunzenhausen, Franconia –Oct 12, 1576, Constantinople), Protestant nonconformist. Appointed junior pastor of Sankt Peter in Heidelberg, when the Electoral Palatinate changed its religious allegiance to the Reformed Church he resisted presbyterial church order and church discipline modeled after Geneva and was therefore transferred to the Heiliggeistkirche, where he was increasingly suspected of Antitrinitarian sympathies (Antitrinitarians). At the imperial diet in Speyer…

Scultetus, Johann

(121 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (actually Anton Schultze, Lat. A. Praetorius; born in the county of Lippe – Dec 6, 1613, Laudenbach), Reformed theologian. He was appointed deacon in Oppenheim in 1589 and pastor in Dittelsheim c. 1595. In 1596 he went to Offenbach am Main and was appointed court chaplain to the count of Wittgenstein in Birstein. In 1597 he opposed the arrest of four women accused of witchcraft. Markus Wriedt Bibliography Works: Gründlicher Bericht von Zauberey und Zauberern, 1598 On Scultetus: AGL VI, 1787, 786 H. Steitz, Geschichte der evangelischen Kirche in Hessen und Nassau, vol. I…

Klopfer, Balthasar Christoph

(173 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Mar 11, 1659, Jüdenberg near Gräfenhainichen – Oct 19, 1703, Laubach) was a Separatist preacher. Trained as a scribe in Torgau, he was secretary to the duke of Holstein, musician and scribe in Hanau, and, from 1681/1682, secretary to the count of Solms-Braunfels. Influenced by the writings of J. Tauler, Klopfer felt called to be a preacher. He was imprisoned because of his Separatist leanings and expelled. He was in Hessen for a while, and then in Laubach (1699) under the protect…

Steuber, Johannes

(202 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] ( Jan 16, 1590, Schickardshausen, Oberhessen – Feb 5, 1643, Marburg), Lutheran theologian. In 1614 he was appointed professor of physics at Gießen and in 1627 added Greek; in 1620 he was appointed professor of theology and Hebrew. In 1624, when the university was moved back to Marburg, he was appointed professor of theology and pastor of St. Elizabeth’s. In 1625 he was appointed university librarian. In 1627 he was put in charge of fellowships. At the behest of Landgrave Louis V, …

John of Wesel

(278 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (John Rucherat, John Ruchrat; c. 1420, Oberwesel/Rhein – 1481, Mainz). John began his studies in Erfurt in 1441, received the M.A. there in 1445, the Dr.theol. in 1456, and became rector in 1457. In 1460, he became a canon in Worms, was called to Basel as professor of theology, and returned to Worms in 1463 as cathedral preacher. Because of statements critical of the church, he was dismissed by the bishop in 1477. He went to Mainz as cathedral pastor. A trial before the Inquisitio…

Jansen, Hendrik

(146 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (c. 1520, Barneveld, Netherlands – after 1594, Cologne), a nonconformist and mystical lay theologian, called “van Barneveld” after his birthplace (Berrefelt, Berreveldt). The poorly educated weaver became a follower of H. Niclaes and was soon one of his closest confidants. After 1573, Jansen preached a radically individualistic mysticism. On the basis of a vision, he wrote under the pseudonym Immanuel Hiel (“the immanent life of God”) many essays and circular letters for the “adhe…

Scultetus, Abraham

(238 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1566, Grünberg, Silesia [today Zielona Góra, Poland] – Oct 24, 1625, Emden), Reformed theologian. After studies in Wittenberg (1588) and Heidelberg (1590), Scultetus was appointed deacon in Schriesheim in 1594, court chaplain in Heidelberg in 1595, and pastor of the Franziskanerkirche in 1598. He was appointed to the church council in 1600. He carried out reforms of the school system in the Upper Palatinate and the county of Hanau-Münzenberg. He also carried out reforms i…

Ursinus

(247 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[English Version] Ursinus, Zacharias (18.7.1534 Breslau – 6.3.1583 Neustadt a.d. Haardt), ev. Theologe. Studium in Breslau und seit 1550 in Wittenberg bei Melanchthon. Vom Religionsgespräch in Worms 1557 Reise über Straßburg, Basel und Genf nach Paris und Zürich. Im Herbst 1558 als Prof. an der Elisabethenschule Breslau. Wegen Ablehnung seiner calvinistisch gefärbten Abendmahlsthesen quittierte U. den Schuldienst und ging über Zürich 1561 nach Heidelberg. Zuerst Lehrer an der von Kurfürst Friedrich…

Winckelmann, Johann Joachim

(598 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1717, Stendal – Jun 8, 1768, Trieste), father of classical archaeology and art history. Though born in poverty, Winckelmann studied theology at Halle from 1738 to 1740 and medicine at Jena in 1741/1742. He served from 1743 to 1748 as deputy rector of the Latin school in Seehausen (Altmark). From 1748 to 1754, he was librarian of Count Heinrich v. Bünau in Nöthnitz, near Dresden, and assisted him in writing his history of the Empire and its emperors. Winckelmann acquired co…

Ursinus, Zacharias

(300 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Jul 18, 1534, Breslau [Wrocław] – Mar 6, 1583, Neustadt an der Weinstraße), Protestant theologian. He studied at Breslau and then beginning in 1550 with Melanchthon at Wittenberg. After the Colloquy of Worms in 1557, he traveled to Paris and Zürich via Straßburg (Strasbourg), Basel, and Geneva. In the fall of 1558 he was appointed professor at the Elisabeth-Gymnasium in Breslau. Opposition to his Calvinistic views on the Lord’s Supper forced him to leave Breslau; in 1561 he went …
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